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SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis, Volume 48, Issue 6: 650-669(2018) https://doi.org/10.1360/N112018-00117

Recent advances in flexible self-healing materials and sensors

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  • ReceivedMay 7, 2018
  • AcceptedMay 18, 2018
  • PublishedJun 12, 2018

Abstract

Endowing devices with the self-healing capacity is an effective approach to enhance their reliability, durability, and functionality, especially for flexible electronic materials and devices. This article reviews the developments in the field of flexible self-healing materials and sensors. This review first introduces the self-healing mechanism of intrinsic and extrinsic polymers, and the advances in self-healing flexible conductive materials are discussed briefly. Then, the fabrication techniques, sensing performance, and healing performance of the newly developed flexible self-healing sensors, especially the flexible self-healing force sensors, are described in detail. Finally, the existing challenges and some possible solutions for flexible self-healing materials and sensors are discussed.


Funded by

国家自然科学基金(61574163)

江苏省杰出青年基金(BK20170008)

江苏省六大人才高峰(DZXX-082)


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  • 1   Table 1Summary of the self-healing performance of typical polymers $^{\rm~a)}$
    Material Mechanical Healing Healing Healing Ref.
    strength mechanism condition efficiency (%
    3M4F 121 MPa/ Thermal reversible 120${^\circ}$C$\sim$150${^\circ}$C 41$\sim$50 [34]
    Compression DA reaction (N$_{2})$/2 h$~\to~$RT
    2MEP4F 121 MPa/ Thermal reversible 115${^\circ}$C/30 min 80 [35]
    Compression DA reaction $\to~$40${^\circ}$C/6 h
    DCPD based 85 MPa/par Compression Thermal reversible 120${^\circ}$C(Ar)/20 h 46 [36]
    polymer DA reaction
    Epoxy based par rubber 0.5 MPa/par Stretch Disulfide bond 60${^\circ}$C/1 h 95 [41]
    PU rubber 3.9 MPa/par Stretch Disulfide bond Visible light/ 24 h 97 [42]
    Ru/PBD 0.4 MPa/par Stretch C-C double bond 20 kPa/1 h 100 [47]
    CF/polyimine 140 MPa/par Bending Imine bond 121${^\circ}$C/45 MPa 100 [46]
    M1-TEGMEMA Acylhydrazone bond 100${^\circ}$C/24 h 100 [44]
    Fatty acid based SR 2 MPa/par Stretch Hydrogen bond RT/3 h 100 [50]
    PDMS-COOH$_{2}$ par based SR 0.4 MPa/par Stretch Hydrogen bond 80${^\circ}$C/16 h 100 [53]
  • 2   Table 2Summary of typical research about flexible self-healing sensors$^{\rm~a)}$
    Material Healing par mechanism Healing condition/par efficiency Application Ref.
    MDPB-TDF/ S-CCTO Self-healing of SWNT 105${^\circ}$C/30 min: Capacitive [13]
    driven by thermal electrical$\sim~$89%; force sensor
    reversible DA reaction mechanical$\sim~$86%
    $\mu~$Ni/L Hydrogen bond 50 kPa/15 s: electrical$\sim~$90% Piezoresistive [14]
    50${^\circ}$C/10 min: mechanical$\sim~$100% force sensor
    rGO/PBS B-O dative bond & RT/10 min: par electrical$\sim~$90%; Piezoresistive [26]
    hydrogen bond mechanical$\sim~$80% force sensor
    SWNT/ PVA-borax Hydrogen bond RT/3.2 s: electrical$\sim~$98% Piezoresistive [78]
    force sensor
    m-PCL/GO/ AgNWs Hydrogen bond 80${^\circ}$C/3 min: par electrical$\sim~$80%; Piezoresistive [79]
    mechanical$\sim~$100% force sensor
    CNT-Fe$^{3~+~}$/PDA@ENR Metal coordination bond RT/24 h: par electrical$\sim~$100%; Piezoresistive [80]
    mechanical$\sim~$89.3% force sensor
    CNTs@(PEI@CNC)/ Hydrogen bond Hot-press: par electrical$\sim~$100%; piezoresistive [81]
    XNBR mechanical$\sim~$83% force sensor
    C-CNC@GA@Ca$^{2+}$ Hydrogen & RT/30 s: par electrical$\sim~$100%; Piezoresistive [82]
    @CNTs/ENR metal coordination bond mechanical$\sim~$90% force sensor
    C-CNC@CT@CNTs/ENR Hydrogen bond RT/15 s: par electrical$\sim~$100%; Piezoresistive par [83]
    mechanical$\sim~$100% force sensor
    Amylopectin par hydrogel Hydrogen bond RT/3 s: electrical$\sim~$99.3%; Piezoresistive [84]
    RT/5 min: mechanical$\sim~$98.4% force sensor
    PVA-PEDOT: PSS Hydrogen bond 80${^\circ}$C $\to~-$20${^\circ}$C: par electrical$\sim~$100%; Piezoresistive [85]
    mechanical$\sim~$85% force sensor
    PVA-PVP/CNC-Fe$^{3~+~}$ Ionic coordination bond RT/5 min: par electrical$\sim~$100%; Piezoresistive [86]
    mechanical$\sim~$100% force sensor
    $\kappa~$-carrageenan/PAAm Thermal-reversibleg 90${^\circ}$C/20 min: par electrical$\sim~$99.2%; Piezoresistive [87]
    $\kappa~$-carrageenan mechanical$\sim~$100% force sensor
    PEG-PAA Metal coordination & RT/2 h: electrical $\sim~$100% par RT/12 h: Piezoresistive [88]
    Hydrogen bond mechanical$\sim~$96.8% force sensor
    PANI-PAA-PA Hydrogen bond & Slight pressure/24 h: electrical$\sim~$99%; Piezoresistive [89]
    electrostatic interaction mechanical$\sim~$99% force sensor
    Graphene/PU Thermal reversible Microwave/5 min$~\to~$65${^\circ}$C/5 h: par Piezoresistive [90]
    DA reaction electrical$\sim~$75%; mechanical$\sim~$100% force sensor
    PAA-Fe$^{3~+~}$/DCh-PPy Ionic interaction RT/1 min: electrical$\sim~$96% par Piezoresistive [15]
    RT/2 min: mechanical$\sim~$100% force sensor
    PDMAA-PVA/rGO Hydrogen bond RT/12 h: par electrical$\sim~$89.6%; Piezoresistive [25]
    mechanical$\sim~$100% force sensor
    SWNT/L Hydrogen bond RT/1 h: electrical$\sim~$100% Temperature sensor [91]
    P(BMA-co-LMA)/MWNT C-C double cond 60${^\circ}$C/3 h: par electrical$\sim~$98%; Temperature sensor [92]
    mechanical$\sim~$94%
    MWNT/PEM Hydrogen bond & Water/30 min: par electrical $\sim~$91%; Gas sensor [21]
    electrostatic interaction mechanical$\sim~$100%

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