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SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis, Volume 50, Issue 1: 67-86(2020) https://doi.org/10.1360/N112018-00320

Recent advances in key elements of spin-wave logic gates

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  • ReceivedDec 6, 2018
  • AcceptedJun 13, 2019
  • PublishedJan 7, 2020

Abstract

Traditional charge-based device development is approaching the limit of Moore's law, thus, there is a desperate need for new information processing principles or architectures. Replacing traditional charge-based devices with non-charge-based devices for information processing shows promise. Spin waves, which are generated from the collective precession of electron spins, are thought to be an important information carrier for the transmission and processing of information in a beyond-Moore era. Spin-wave logic gates possess incomparable advantages over traditional logic devices in energy consumption, device scale, application frequency, and logical operation, among other factors. This article explains the operating principles of spin-wave logic gates based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure, and then analyzes the realization theory of key spin-wave logic gate elements at a device level. Recent advances in these key elements are also reviewed systematically. Lastly, future prospects of spin-wave logic gates are discussed.


Funded by

国家自然科学基金(61734002,61571079,51702042)

国家重点研发计划(2016YFA0300801)


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Spin wave logic gate based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer. (a) Schematic structure of Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer; (b) truth table of amplitude-based XNOR logic

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Spin wave majority gate [49]. (a) Schematic structure of the majority logic gate; (b) truth table of phase-based majority logic @Copyright 2012 AIP Publishing

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) The first experimental realization of a spin wave majority gate [50]. (a) Sketch of the microwave setup used in the experiments; (b) photograph of the device under test @Copyright 2017 AIP Publishing

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Spin wave phase shifter based on domain walls [57]. (a) Snapshots of the effect of the 180$^\circ$ and 360$^\circ$ domain walls on the phase of spin waves; (b) Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on domain wall phase-shifting mechanism @Copyright 2004 APS

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Spin wave phase shifter based on magnonic crystals [61]. The images of (a) 1-D magnonic crystals with etched parallel channels and (b) 2-D magnonic crystals with etched circular wells @Copyright 2014 AIP Publishing

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Spin wave phase shifter based on point defects [60]. (a) Schematic structure of the point defects; (b) example for a magnonic XNOR logic gate @Copyright 2016 AIP Publishing

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Spin wave phase shifter based on resonator [63]. (a) The ground state of the simulation structure. The snapshots of dynamic magnetization with the spacing kept at (b) 5 nm, (c) 20 nm, and (d) 50 nm, respectively. protect łinebreak (e) The ground state of the same structure but with the resonator magnetization flipped to the opposite direction. (f) The snapshot of dynamic magnetization with the spacing kept at 5 nm @Copyright 2012 AIP Publishing

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) Phase shift modulated by current. (a) Current-induced Oersted field [41]; (b) current controlled spin wave phase shifter [64]@Copyright 2008 AIP Publishing, 2009 AIP Publishing

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) Spin-polarized current controlled spin wave shifter [65,66]. (a) Schematic diagram of the simulation structure; (b) the phase shifting results under different applied current densities; (c) the phase shifting result in the application model; (d) the snapshots of dynamic magnetization in Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer @Copyright 2015 Elsevier, 2016 IEEE

  • Figure 10

    (Color online) Voltage controlled MZI-type spin wave logic device [68]@Copyright 2011 APS

  • Figure 11

    (Color online) Electric field controlled spin-wave phase shifter [55]. (a) Schematics of the structure;protect łinebreak (b) comparison of phase shifting results under different field bias @Copyright 2018 AIP Publishing

  • Figure 12

    (Color online) Voltage controlled spin wave phase shifter based on VCMA [56]. (a) Schematic diagram of the spin wave phase shifter based on VCMA; (b) the frequency dispersion under different electric fields; (c) the relationship between the phase change and the applied electric field; (d) phase shifting achieved by modulating the bias electric field; (e) phase shifting achieved by modulating the film thickness @Copyright 2018 APS

  • Figure 13

    (Color online) (a) Ring-shaped waveguide [42]; (b) fork-shaped waveguide [48]@Copyright 2008 AIP Publishing, 2017 AIP Publishing

  • Figure 14

    (Color online) Spin wave multiplexer [69]. (a) Schematic diagram of the spin wave multiplexer; (b) the frequency dispersion under different alignment of the spin wave vector and the magnetization; (c) with no magnetic fields;protect łinebreak (d) with locally generated Oersted field; (e) with an externally applied magnetic field @Copyright 2014 Springer Nature

  • Figure 15

    (Color online) Spin wave directional coupler [70]. (a) Schematic structure of the spin wave directional coupler; (b) normalized output power as a function of the coupling length; (c) switching of the device functionality by changing the signal frequency; (d) switching of the device functionality by changing the bias magnetic field @Copyright 2018 AAAS

  • Figure 16

    (Color online) Spin wave beam splitter [71]. (a) Schematic diagram of the simulation structure; (b) snapshot of dynamic magnetization with no DC-current applied; (c) snapshot of dynamic magnetization with a negative DC-current applied. The design of a switchable spin wave beam splitter; (d) applying negative DC-current; (e) applying positive DC-current; (f) without DC-current input @Copyright 2017 AIP Publishing

  • Table 1   Selection of magnetic materials for magnonic applications, their main parameters, and their estimated spin-wave characteristics @Copyright 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
    $\mu$m-thick LPE YIG nm-thick YIG Permalloy (Py) CoFeB Heusler CMFS compound
    Chemical composition Y$_3$Fe$_5$O$_{12}$ Y$_3$Fe$_5$O$_{12}$ Ni$_{81}$Fe$_{19}$ Co$_{40}$Fe$_{40}$B$_{20}$ Co$_2$Mn$_{0.6}$Fe$_{0.4}$Si
    Structure Single-crystal Single-crystal Amorphous Amorphous Single-crystal
    Gilbert damping $\alpha$ 5$\times$10$^{-5}$ 2$\times$10$^{-4}$ 7$\times$10$^{-3}$ 4$\times$10$^{-3}$ 3$\times$10$^{-3}$
    Saturation magnetization $M_0$ 140 kA$\cdot$m$^{-1}$ 140 kA$\cdot$m$^{-1}$ 800 kA$\cdot$m$^{-1}$ 1250 kA$\cdot$m$^{-1}$ 1000 kA$\cdot$m$^{-1}$
    Exchange constant $A$ 3.6 pJ$\cdot$m$^{-1}$ 3.6 pJ$\cdot$m$^{-1}$ 16 pJ$\cdot$m$^{-1}$ 15 pJ$\cdot$m$^{-1}$ 13 pJ$\cdot$m$^{-1}$
    Curie temperature $T_C$ 560 K 560 K 550–870 K 1000 K $>$980 K
    Typical film thickness $t$ 1–20 $\mu$m 5–100 nm 5–100 nm 5–100 nm 5–100 nm
    The following parameters are calculated for dipolar MSSW modes,film magnetized in-plane by the field of 100 mT, for the spin-wave wavenumber $k~=~0.1/t$:
    Lifetime for dipolar surface wave $\tau$ 604.9 ns (@ 4.77 GHz) 150.2 ns(@ 4.80 GHz) 1.3 ns (@ 11.1 GHz) 1.6 ns(@ 14.9 GHz) 2.6 ns(@ 12.8 GHz)
    Velocity $v_{gr}$ 3.7 km/s(@ $t$ = 5 $\mu$m) 0.23 km/s(@$t$ = 20 nm) 2.0 km/s(@$t$ = 20 nm) 3.5 km/s(@$t$ = 20 nm) 2.6 km/s(@$t$ = 20 nm)
    Freepath $l$ 20.4 mm 35.1 $\mu$m 2.7$\mu$m 5.7 $\mu$m 6.9 $\mu$m
    Ratio $l$/$\lambda$ 64.9 27.9 2.1 4.5 5.5
  • Table 2   Techniques for excitation and detection of spin waves and their main features @Copyright 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Technique Function Features
    Microwave techniques Conventional microstrip antenna based approach Excitation + detection Coherent excitation, high sensitivity, phase control, high frequency resolution
    Contactless antenna based approach Excitation + detection Simplified design without wiring, access to short-wavelength magnons
    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique Excitation + detection Robust method for the characterization of magnetic materials
    Parametric pumping technique Amplification + excitation Access to high magnon densities and short-wavelength magnons
    Pulsed inductive microwave magnetometer (PIMM) Excitation + detection Excitation of waves in a wide frequency range
    Inductive magnetic probe (IMP) technique Detection Spatial resolution, high time and frequency resolution
    Optical techniques Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy Detection Space-, frequency-, time-, phase-, and wavenumber-resolved measurements
    Thermal and nonthermal excitation by fs laser Excitation Access to high-frequency magnons, suitable for fundamental studies
    Magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectrometry Detection Space-, frequency-, time-, phase-, and wavenumber-resolved measurements
    Spintronic approaches Spin pumping (SP) based technique detection Detection Direct conversion to DC, not sensitive to spin-wave wavelength
    Spin transfer torque (STT) based technique Amplification + excitation Direct conversion from DC, efficient at nano-scale
    Spin-polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy (SPEELSC) Detection Access to high wavenumbers up to the edge of Brillouin zone
    Other techniques Magneto-electric (ME) cells Excitation + detection Highly suitable for magnon logic
    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) Detection High spatial resolution
    Detection of magnon-induced heat Detection Major opportunities for fundamental studies
    Nuclear resonant scattering Detection Highest spatial resolution currently achievable
    X-ray-detected ferromagnetic resonance (XFMR) Detection High spatial resolution, access to layer resolution
    Electron-magnon scattering approach Detection Suitable for the detection of domain wall position

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