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Chinese Science Bulletin, Volume 64, Issue 16: 1671-1678(2019) https://doi.org/10.1360/N972018-01081

Li2BaSiSe4: A new metal-mixed selenide with outstanding second-harmonic generation

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  • ReceivedNov 3, 2018
  • AcceptedDec 10, 2018
  • PublishedFeb 18, 2019

Abstract

Nonlinear optical (NLO) materials as important frequency-conversion devices in solid state lasers, have attracted unprecedented attentions in laser science and technology. In infrared (IR) region, NLO materials display more important roles in view of critical application prospect including laser guidance, resource exploration and long-distance laser communication etc. AgGaS2, AgGaSe2 and ZnGeP2 are selected as the commercial IR NLO materials, but they exihibit low laser damage thresholds (LDT) induced by their small bandgaps, which limit their further applications in high energy laser systems. Therefore, it is still a big challenge to obtain new IR NLO materials, which could balance the demand of large second-harmonic generation (SHG) and high laser damage threshold. As a NLO material, the non-centrosymmetrical structure is the prerequisite condition, and mix-metal chalcogenides have attracted much attention since their structures exhibit a variety of acentric units arising from the combination of different center metals, which show different sizes, coordination preferences, and packing characteristics. Previous investigations indicate that the introduction of alkali and alkali earth metals is good for obtaining large band gap because they may avoid the d-d and f-f electron transition like popular LiGaS2, BaGa4S7 etc. Moreover, compared with sulfides, selenides produce larger SHG responses. Therefore, in this work, in aim at the balanced optical properties, we selected electricity-positive alkali metal Li, alkali earth metal Ba, silicon in IVA group and selenium as the raw materials. Through high temperature flux method, we have obtained a metal-mixed selenide Li2BaSiSe4.

The raw materials are weighted with the molar ratio of 2:1:1:4, and then loaded into the graphite crucible, finally sealed in a silicon tube under ethane-oxygen flame. The tube is put in a program-computed furnace with the temperature program as blow: (1) heat from room temperature to 190°C in 3 h and keep at this temperature for 300 min; (2) heat from 190 to 450°C in 10 h and keep at this temperature for 20 h; (3) heat from 450 to 850°C in 10 h and keep at this temperature for 30 h; (4) cool from 850 to 400°C in 100 h and turn down the furnace. Optical characterizations contain single crystal X-Ray diffraction (XRD), powder XRD, Raman spectrum, UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflection spectrum, and SHG responses measurement at 2.09 μm. Moreover, theoretical calculations have also made to further investigate the relationship between properties and structure, including band structure, density of states, birefringence and SHG coefficients.

Single crystals with millimeter sizes used for single crystal XRD and Raman spectrum are picked from the synthesized polycrystal under a microscope. The powder samples used for powder XRD characterization and UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflection are obtained from the ground polycrystals. The powder SHG responses are measured with sieved crystals in six different size ranges: 38−55, 55−88, 88−105, 105−150, 150−200, 200−250 μm, with AgGaS2 in the same particle size ranges as the references. The band gap of Li2BaSiSe4 is obtained from UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflection data converted by Kubelka-Munk function, which is measured to be 2.47 eV, which is larger than AgGaSe2 (1.83 eV). The SHG response is measured with 2.09 μm laser, and the result shows that Li2BaSiSe4 is type-I phase matchable and is equal to that of commercially applied AgGaS2. In conclusion, the introduction of Li and Ba could enlarge the band gap compared with classical AgGaSe2, but the SHG response need more rational designation to maintain at a high level.


Supplement

补充材料

表S1 Li2BaSiSe4的原子键价及各向同性参数

表S2 Li2BaSiSe4的键长和键角

图S1 Li2BaSiSe4的拉曼光谱

本文以上补充材料见网络版csb.scichina.com. 补充材料为作者提供的原始数据, 作者对其学术质量和内容负责.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Structures of Li2BaSiSe4. (a) Structure of Li2BaSiSe4 along a axis and LiSe4 layers. Monolayer A (b) and monolayer B (c) formed by LiSe4. (d) Whole structure of Li2BaSiSe4 along c axis

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Theoretical and experimental powder XRD patterns

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Optical properties. (a) Band gap of Li2BaSiSe4. (b) Powder SHG responses of Li2BaSiSe4 (round) and AgGaS2 (square)

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Calculated band structure (a) and density of states (b) of Li2BaSiSe4

  • Table 1   Crystal and structural refinement data of LiBaSiSe

    实验式

    Li2BaSiSe4

    分子量

    495.15

    温度(K)

    296(2)

    波长(Å)

    0.71073

    晶系, 空间群

    四方晶系, I-42m

    单胞尺寸

    a=6.921(3) Å, α=90°

    b=6.921(3) Å, β=90°

    c=8.253(8) Å, γ=90°

    体积(Å3)

    395.3(5)

    Z值, 计算密度

    2, 4.160 mg/m3

    吸收系数(mm-1)

    23.477

    晶体尺寸(mm3)

    0.159×0.113×0.105

    θ 范围

    3.842°~27.525°

    限定范围

    -7≤h≤8, -8≤k≤7, -10≤l≤9

    全部衍射点数/独立衍射点数unique

    1201/257(Rint=0.0218)

    θ =27.525°时完整度

    100.00%

    吸收矫正

    半经验

    精修方法

    F2的全矩阵最小二乘法

    F2的适合度

    1.065

    最终R值(I>2σ (I))

    R1=0.0179, wR2=0.0458

    R值(全数据)

    R1=0.0180, wR2=0.0458

    绝对结构参数

    0.09(5)

    消光系数

    n/a

    最大的衍射峰、谷

    0.481, -0.904(e Å-3)

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