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SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis, Volume 50, Issue 4: 483-495(2020) https://doi.org/10.1360/SSI-2019-0223

A fault detection method for a braking system of high-speed trains

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  • ReceivedOct 8, 2019
  • AcceptedNov 18, 2019
  • PublishedApr 9, 2020

Abstract

The braking system is crucial to ensure the safe and smooth operation of high-speed trains. Effective detection of incipient faults in the braking system can help avoid accidents and improve the system's overall reliability. In this paper, the leakage fault of the EP valve in the braking system is analyzed initially. Then, a fault diagnosis framework for such a braking system is presented. In addition, considering fault characteristics, a novel fault detection method, based on a global marginal discriminant analysis (GMDA), is proposed. Finally, the proposed framework and method are verified on the braking test platform of a high-speed train at the CRRC Qingdao Sifang Rolling Stock Research Institute Co., Ltd.


Funded by

国家自然科学基金(61490701,61751307,61473164)

山东省泰山学者项目


Supplement

Appendix

高速列车制动系统故障诊断架构的离线建模流程

原有的故障诊断离线建模流程主要基于参考系统和专家经验进行模型设计. 以针对电空制动回路的监控为例, 通过参考系统和专家经验确定的故障偏差幅值为20 kPa, 虽然能够保障基本的行车安全, 若发生故障并触发报警, 就会引起列车降速.

基于高速列车制动系统故障诊断架构的离线建模流程如图A1所示, 主要涉及8个部分, 分别是: 数据库, 远程故障诊断系统, 故障诊断模型, 快速开发中心, 在线故障诊断系统, 制动系统, 通讯单元和数据获取单元.

本文提出的架构在建模部分着重考虑了基于数据的建模流程, 弱化了参考系统和专家经验的作用. 该架构可基于多源数据进行统计分析并提取故障特征, 实现数据驱动的离线建模. 然后, 经由快速开发中心对故障诊断模型进行快速部署及在线测试与验证. 如果参数整定存在偏差, 可以基于快速开发中心进行快速修正并重新部署. 这种开发流程克服了原有架构以逆向设计为主及开发迭代周期较长的缺点, 实现了故障诊断模型的正向设计与快速迭代开发. 并将支持“被动式"故障诊断模型向“主动式"的转变.

高速列车制动系统故障诊断架构的在线故障诊断流程

原有的故障诊断系统架构能够实时进行故障诊断, 可以满足基本的行车安全. 但由于在线计算资源受限等原因, 尚无法实现先进故障诊断算法的部署与实现. 另外, 当发生无对应故障代码的故障时, 无相关流程对该故障进行有效检测. 考虑到以上两点, 本文提出的高铁制动系统故障诊断架构完善了在线故障诊断流程, 如图2所示.

在图2中, 将远程故障诊断系统囊括到在线故障检测流程中. 随着通讯技术的快速发展, 高铁在线运行数据可通过网络实时传输至地面远程故障诊断系统中. 从而, 通过在远程故障诊断系统中部署Spark Streaming实现对复杂故障的实时诊断. 同时, 解决了在线故障诊断系统计算资源受限的问题.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Control schematic diagram of electro-pneumatic control loop of high-speed train braking system

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Braking test platform provided by Sifang Rolling Stock Research Institute

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Fault diagnosis system architecture of high-speed train braking system

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Detection results of KNORR logic-based fault detection method

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Detection results of GMDA-based fault detection method. (a) $l=20$, $p=8$; (b) $l=20$, $p=16$; (c) $l=40$, $p=8$; (d) $l=40$, $p=16$; (e) $l=60$, $p=8$; (f) $l=60$, $p=16$

  •   

    Algorithm 1 基于GMDA的故障检测算法

    Require:正常工况训练数据矩阵$X~\in~\mathbb{R}^{d~\times~n}$, $l$类异常工况训练数据矩阵${Y_k}~\in~\mathbb{R}^{d~\times~{m_k}}$, $k=1,2,3,\ldots,l$, 参数: 子空间维数$p$,显著性水平$\alpha$.

    Output: 张成故障检测模型子空间的矩阵$W$, $p$个最大特征值对应的特征值对角阵$\Lambda$, $T^2$统计量所对应的控制限$T_{\lim~}^2$.

    通过式(1)计算 $S_{W}$;

    通过式(3)计算 $S_{G_i}$;

    通过式(2)计算 $S_{G}$;

    通过公式(6)的广义特征值问题,得到闭式解$W^*$和对应的特征值对角阵${\Lambda}^*$,取出$p$个最大特征值对应的特征向量组成矩阵$W$并构成最大特征值对角阵$\Lambda$;

    求解$T_{\lim~}^2$控制限.(在线故障检测部分)

    Require:待检测的数据样本$x_i~\in~\mathbb{R}^{d}$, 建模过程求得的矩阵$W$和特征值矩阵$\Lambda$, 统计量$T^2$对应求得的控制限$T_{\lim~}^2$.

    Output: 待检测的数据样本是否为故障数据样本.

    通过式(10)求解$x_i$对应的$T^2$统计量 $T_i^2$;

    判断$x_i$是否为故障数据样本;

    如果 $T_i^2~\leq~T_{\lim~}^2$, $x_i$ 为正常样本;否则 $x_i$ 为故障样本.

  • Table 1   Fault detection rate (FDR) and false alarm rate (FAR) of GMDA-based fault detection method
    Augment parameter $l=$ 20 $l=$ 40 $l=$ 60
    Leakage (SLPM) $1.0\sim2.0$ $2.0\sim4.0$ Average $1.0\sim2.0$ $2.0\sim4.0$ Average $1.0\sim2.0$ $2.0\sim4.0$ Average
    Dimension $p$ FDR (%) FDR (%) FAR (%) FDR (%) FDR (%) FAR (%) FDR (%) FDR (%) FAR (%)
    2 55.33 60.00 0.00 62.00 79.33 0.00 60.67 76.00 0.00
    4 69.33 56.67 0.00 69.33 76.67 0.00 70.67 84.67 0.00
    6 72.67 58.67 0.00 75.33 85.33 0.60 80.00 92.67 0.00
    8 72.67 62.67 1.00 78.67 88.67 0.60 93.33 97.33 0.20
    10 74.00 69.33 0.40 82.67 91.33 0.60 99.33 98.00 0.20
    12 74.00 67.33 0.00 86.00 92.00 0.60 98.67 98.00 1.60
    14 78.00 68.67 0.20 90.00 92.67 0.20 100.00 98.67 2.00
    16 81.33 76.67 0.00 90.00 92.67 0.00 100.00 100.00 2.00

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