logo

SCIENTIA SINICA Terrae, Volume 49, Issue 10: 1641-1658(2019) https://doi.org/10.1360/SSTe-2019-0131

探索中前行——中国空间物理研究70年

More info
  • ReceivedJun 13, 2019
  • AcceptedAug 23, 2019
  • PublishedSep 12, 2019

Abstract

空间物理学是一门探测与理论并重的学科. 探测广袤的空间环境倚赖地基和卫星技术, 研究深邃的空间物理过程需由各国研究团体通力合作. 中国空间物理研究的70年发展, 也体现在国家综合科技实力和国际影响力的上升路径之中. 从新中国成立前的零星研究起步, 到改革开放前的规模初现, 再到20世纪末的全面爆发, 中国空间物理在自主探测与理论研究两方面都实现了阶跃式发展. 进入21世纪以来, 随着综合国力的再一次快速提升, 中国空间物理研究在国际范围内呈现出“多数并跑, 部分引领”的新局面. 得益于深空探测国家战略的确立, 研究领域也从地球空间延拓至行星空间甚至更广. 中国空间物理研究的70年, 不断探索, 不断前行, 各领域人才辈出, 队伍不断成长壮大, 从依赖外国探测数据到自主研究发展, 从西学东归到人员对流, 走出了一个不断进步的发展历程. 未来的空间物理研究, 将仍然与国家富强民族复兴紧密相连, 在引领学科发展潮流中探索, 在服务国家战略需求中前行.


Acknowledgment

本文从策划到成文过程中, 得到空间物理学界许多同行的支持和建议, 特别向以下各位致以衷心感谢! 万卫星、雷久侯、宁百齐、刘四清、陈耀、倪彬彬、张清和、申成龙、崔峻、沈超、符慧山、熊鹰、刘颖、程鑫、何建森、胡泽骏、薛向辉、李钦增、刘晓和余优等.


References

[1] 黄信榆, 谭子勋. 1984. 含谷电离层频高图剖面分析. 地球物理学报, 27: 503–510. Google Scholar

[2] 刘振兴. 2001. 地球空间双星探测计划. 地球物理学报, 44: 573–580. Google Scholar

[3] 刘振兴, 濮祖蔭. 1964. 磁暴期間外輻射带結构的变化. 地球物理学报, 13: 189–200. Google Scholar

[4] 万卫星, 李钧. 1987. 由高频无线电波反射回波参数反演电离层运动和结构的高度剖面. 空间科学学报, 7: 85–94. Google Scholar

[5] 汪景琇, 季海生. 2013. 空间天气驱动源——太阳风暴研究. 中国科学: 地球科学, 43: 883–911. Google Scholar

[6] 王水, 方励之. 1979. 太阳风中的大尺度涡旋波. 中国科学, 9: 373–383. Google Scholar

[7] 王水, 李波, 赵寄昆. 2000. 日冕物质抛射. 天文学进展, 18: 192–208. Google Scholar

[8] 章公亮. 1984. 太阳耀斑引起的日球和地磁扰动. 中国科学: 数学 物理学 天文学 技术科学, 14: 254–262. Google Scholar

[9] 中国空间物理学学科发展战略研究组. 1996. 中国空间物理学学科发展战略研究报告. 地球科学进展, 11: 140–150. Google Scholar

[10] 李钧. 1983. 电离层声重波引起的高频多普勒频移. 地球物理学报, 26: 1–8. Google Scholar

[11] 李文静, 申旭辉, 谭巧, 鲁恒新. 2018. 张衡一号: 中国地震立体观测体系第一个天基平台. 科技纵览, 9: 56–59. Google Scholar

[12] 赵九章, 徐荣栏, 周国成. 1963. 带电粒子在偶极磁场中的运动区域及其模型实验. 科学通报, 14: 56–57. Google Scholar

[13] 张永维, 袁仕耿. 2008. 中国的地球空间双星探测计划. 中国航天, 5: 12–17. Google Scholar

[14] Aa E, Huang W, Yu S, Liu S, Shi L, Gong J, Chen Y, Shen H. A regional ionospheric TEC mapping technique over China and adjacent areas on the basis of data assimilation. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2015, 120: 5049-5061 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[15] Cao J B, Liu Z X, Yang J Y, Yian C X, Wang Z G, Zhang X H, Wang S R, Chen S W, Bian W, Dong W, Zhang Z G, Hua F L, Zhou L, Cornilleau-Wehrlin N, de Laporte B, Parrot M, Alleyne H, Yearby K, Santolík O, Mazelle C. First results of low frequency electromagnetic wave detector of TC-2/Double Star program. Ann Geophys, 2005, 23: 2803-2811 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[16] Cao J B, Ma Y D, Parks G, Reme H, Dandouras I, Nakamura R, Zhang T L, Zong Q, Lucek E, Carr C M, Liu Z X, Zhou G C. Joint observations by Cluster satellites of bursty bulk flows in the magnetotail. J Geophys Res, 2006, 111: A04206 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[17] Cao J, Ma Y, Parks G, Reme H, Dandouras I, Zhang T. Kinetic analysis of the energy transport of bursty bulk flows in the plasma sheet. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2013, 118: 313-320 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[18] Chai L, Wan W, Wei Y, Zhang T, Exner W, Fraenz M, Dubinin E, Feyerabend M, Motschmann U, Ma Y, Halekas J S, Li Y, Rong Z, Zhong J. The induced global looping magnetic field on Mars. Astrophys J, 2019, 871: L27 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[19] Chen G, Jin H, Yan J Y, Cui X, Zhang S D, Yan C X, Yang G T, Lan A L, Gong W L, Qiao L, Wu C, Wang J. Hainan coherent scatter phased array radar (HCOPAR): System design and ionospheric irregularity observations. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens, 2017, 55: 4757-4765 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[20] Chen G, Wu C, Zhao Z, Zhong D, Qi H, Jin H. Daytime E region field-aligned irregularities observed during a solar eclipse. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2014, 119: 10633-10640 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[21] Chen Y, Feng S W, Li B, Song H Q, Xia L D, Kong X L, Li X. A coronal seismological study with streamer waves. Astrophys J, 2011, 728: 147 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[22] Chen Y, Liu L, Le H, Wan W, Zhang H. Nm F2 enhancement during ionospheric F2 region nighttime: A statistical analysis based on COSMIC observations during the 2007–2009 solar minimum. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2015, 120: 10083-10095 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[23] Chen Y, Hu Y Q. A two-dimensional Alfvén wave-driven solar wind model. Sol Phys, 2001, 199: 371-384 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[24] Cheng X, Zhang J, Liu Y, Ding M D. Observing flux rope formation during the impulsive phase of a solar eruption. Astrophys J, 2011, 732: L25 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[25] Cui J, Yelle R V, Strobel D F, Müller-Wodarg I C F, Snowden D S, Koskinen T T, Galand M. The CH4 structure in Titan’s upper atmosphere revisited. J Geophys Res, 2012, 117: E11006 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[26] Cui J, Yelle R V, Zhao L L, Stone S, Jiang F Y, Cao Y T, Yao M J, Koskinen T T, Wei Y. The Impact of crustal magnetic fields on the thermal structure of the Martian upper atmosphere. Astrophys J, 2018, 853: L33 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[27] Dai L, Takahashi K, Wygant J R, Chen L, Bonnell J, Cattell C A, Thaller S, Kletzing C, Smith C W, MacDowall R J, Baker D N, Blake J B, Fennell J, Claudepierre S, Funsten H O, Reeves G D, Spence H E. Excitation of poloidal standing Alfvén waves through drift resonance wave-particle interaction. Geophys Res Lett, 2013, 40: 4127-4132 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[28] Deng X, Ashour-Abdalla M, Zhou M, Walker R, EI-Alaoui M, Angelopoulos V, Ergen R E, Schriver D. 2010. Wave and particle characteristics of earthward electron injections associated with dipolarization fronts. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 115: A09225. Google Scholar

[29] Ding F, Wan W, Xu G, Yu T, Yang G, Wang J. Climatology of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by a GPS network in central China. J Geophys Res, 2011, 116: A09327 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[30] Ding Z H, Wu J, Xu Z W, Xu B, Dai L D. The Qujing incoherent scatter radar: System description and preliminary measurements. Earth Planets Space, 2018, 70: 87 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[31] Dou X K, Qiu S C, Xue X H, Chen T D, Ning B Q. Sporadic and thermospheric enhanced sodium layers observed by a lidar chain over China. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2013, 118: 6627-6643 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[32] Feng X S, Jiang C W, Xiang C Q, Zhao X P, Wu S T. A data-driven model for the global coronal evolution. Astrophys J, 2012, 758: 62 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[33] Feng X, Zhou Y, Wu S T. A novel numerical implementation for solar wind modeling by the modified conservation element/solution element method. Astrophys J, 2007, 655: 1110-1126 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[34] Fu H S, Khotyaintsev Y V, Vaivads A, Retinò A, André M. Energetic electron acceleration by unsteady magnetic reconnection. Nat Phys, 2013, 9: 426-430 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[35] Fu H S, Vaivads A, Khotyaintsev Y V, André M, Cao J B, Olshevsky V, Eastwood J P, Retinò A. Intermittent energy dissipation by turbulent reconnection. Geophys Res Lett, 2017, 44: 37-43 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[36] Fu H S, Vaivads A, Khotyaintsev Y V, Olshevsky V, André M, Cao J B, Huang S Y, Retinò A, Lapenta G. How to find magnetic nulls and reconstruct field topology with MMS data?. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2015, 120: 3758-3782 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[37] Gong J C, Cai Y X, Liu S Q, Shi L Q, Lu G R, Chen Z F, Bao L L. 2016. Development of operational space environment technology system. Chin J Space Sci, 36: 753–761. Google Scholar

[38] Gong J C, Liu S Q, Shi L Q, Luo B X, Chen Y H, Huang W G, Cao J B, Xie L, Lei J H, Tang W W. 2014. Development of operational space weather prediction models. Chin J Space Sci, 34: 688–702. Google Scholar

[39] Guo R L, Yao Z H, Wei Y, Ray L C, Rae I J, Arridge C S, Coates A J, Delamere P A, Sergis N, Kollmann P, Grodent D, Dunn W R, Waite J H, Burch J L, Pu Z Y, Palmaerts B, Dougherty M K. Rotationally driven magnetic reconnection in Saturn’s dayside. Nat Astron, 2018, 2: 640-645 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[40] Guo X C, Wang C, Hu Y Q, Kan J R. Bow shock contributions to region 1 field-aligned current: A new result from global MHD simulations. Geophys Res Lett, 2008, 35: L03108 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[41] Han D S, Chen X C, Liu J J, Qiu Q, Keika K, Hu Z J, Liu J M, Hu H Q, Yang H G. An extensive survey of dayside diffuse aurora based on optical observations at Yellow River Station. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2015, 120: 7447-7465 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[42] Hao Y Q, Xiao Z, Zhang D H. Multi-instrument observation on co-seismic ionospheric effects after great Tohoku earthquake. J Geophys Res, 2012, 117: A02305 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[43] He F, Zhang X X, Chen B, Fok M Q. 2011. Reconstruction of the plasmasphere from Moon-based EUV images. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 116: A11203. Google Scholar

[44] He H, Shen C, Wang H, Zhang X, Chen B, Yan J, Zou Y, Jorgensen A M, He F, Yan Y, Zhu X, Huang Y, Xu R. Response of plasmaspheric configuration to substorms revealed by Chang’e 3. Sci Rep, 2016, 6: 32362 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[45] He J S, Tu C Y, Tian H, Xiao C J, Wang X G, Pu Z Y, Ma Z W, Dunlop M W, Zhao H, Zhou G P, Wang J X, Fu S Y, Liu Z X, Zong Q G, Glassmeier K H, Reme H, Dandouras I, Escoubet C P. A magnetic null geometry reconstructed from cluster spacecraft observations. J Geophys Res, 2008, 113: A05205 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[46] He J, Tu C, Marsch E, Yao S. Reproduction of the observed two-component magnetic helicity in solar wind turbulence by a superposition of parallel and oblique Alfvén waves. Astrophys J, 2012, 749: 86 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[47] He J S, Zhu X Y, Chen Y J, Salem C, Stevens M, Li H, Ruan W Z, Zhang L, Tu C Y. Plasma heating and Alfvénic turbulence enhancement during two steps of energy conversion in magnetic reconnection exhaust region of solar wind. Astrophys J, 2018, 856: 148 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[48] Hu Y Q. A multistep implicit scheme for time-dependent 2-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flows. J Comput Phys, 1989, 84: 441-460 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[49] Hu L, Yue X, Ning B. Development of the Beidou ionospheric observation network in China for space weather monitoring. Space Weather, 2017, 15: 974-984 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[50] Hu Y Q, Guo X C, Wang C. On the ionospheric and reconnection potentials of the Earth: Results from global MHD simulations. J Geophys Res, 2007, 112: A07215 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[51] Hu Y Q, Li G Q, Xing X Y. Equilibrium and catastrophe of coronal flux ropes in axisymmetrical magnetic field. J Geophys Res, 2003, 108: 1072 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[52] Jiang C W, Feng X S, Wu S T, Hu Q. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a sigmoid eruption of active region 11283. Astrophys J, 2013, 771: L30 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[53] Jiao J, Yang G, Wang J, Cheng X, Li F, Yang Y, Gong W, Wang Z, Du L, Yan C, Gong S. First report of sporadic K layers and comparison with sporadic Na layers at Beijing, China (40.6°N, 116.2°E). J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2015, 120: 5214-5225 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[54] Lan J, Ning B, Li G, Zhu Z, Hu L, Sun W. Observation of short-period ionospheric disturbances using a portable digital ionosonde at Sanya. Radio Sci, 2018, 53: 1521-1532 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[55] Lee L C, Fu Z F. A theory of magnetic flux transfer at the Earth’s magnetopause. Geophys Res Lett, 1985, 12: 105-108 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[56] Lei J, Dang T, Wang W, Burns A, Zhang B, Le H. Long-lasting response of the global thermosphere and ionosphere to the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2018, 123: 4309-4316 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[57] Li G, Ning B, Abdu M A, Otsuka Y, Yokoyama T, Yamamoto M, Liu L. Longitudinal characteristics of spread F backscatter plumes observed with the EAR and Sanya VHF radar in Southeast Asia. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2013, 118: 6544-6557 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[58] Li Q, Xu J, Liu X, Yuan W, Chen J. Characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau region. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2016, 121: 9204-9221 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[59] Li W, André M, Khotyaintsev Y V, Vaivads A, Graham D B, Toledo-Redondo S, Norgren C, Henri P, Wang C, Tang B B, Lavraud B, Vernisse Y, Turner D L, Burch J, Torbert R, Magnes W, Russell C T, Blake J B, Mauk B, Giles B, Pollock C, Fennell J, Jaynes A, Avanov L A, Dorelli J C, Gershman D J, Paterson W R, Saito Y, Strangeway R J. Kinetic evidence of magnetic reconnection due to Kelvin-Helmholtz waves. Geophys Res Lett, 2016, 43: 5635-5643 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[60] Lin R L, Zhang X X, Liu S Q, Wang Y L, Gong J C. A three-dimensional asymmetric magnetopause model. J Geophys Res, 2010, 115: A04207 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[61] Liu L, Chen Y, Le H, Kurkin V I, Polekh N M, Lee C C. The ionosphere under extremely prolonged low solar activity. J Geophys Res, 2011, 116: A04320 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[62] Liu L, Chen Y, Le H, Ning B, Wan W, Liu J, Hu L. A case study of postmidnight enhancement in F-layer electron density over Sanya of China. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2013, 118: 4640-4648 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[63] Liu L, Chen Y. 2009. Statistical analysis on the solar activity variations of the TEC derived at JPL from global GPS observations. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 114: A10311. Google Scholar

[64] Liu R, Yang H. Progress in polar upper atmospheric physics research in China. Adv Polar Sci, 2012, 23: 55-71 CrossRef Google Scholar

[65] Liu S Q, Gong J C. Operational space weather services in national space science center of Chinese Academy of Sciences. Space Weather, 2015, 13: 599-605 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[66] Liu X, Liu W, Cao J B, Fu H S, Yu J, Li X. Dynamic plasmapause model based on THEMIS measurements. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2015, 120: 10543-10556 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[67] Liu X, Xu J, Yue J, Liu H L, Yuan W. Large winds and wind shears caused by the nonlinear interactions between gravity waves and tidal backgrounds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2014, 119: 7698-7708 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[68] Liu Y D, Luhmann J G, Kajdič P, Kilpua E K J, Lugaz N, Nitta N V, Möstl C, Lavraud B, Bale S D, Farrugia C J, Galvin A B. Observations of an extreme storm in interplanetary space caused by successive coronal mass ejections. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 3481 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[69] Liu Y D, Luhmann J G, Lugaz N, Möstl C, Davies J A, Bale S D, Lin R P. On Sun-to-Earth propagation of coronal mass ejections. Astrophys J, 2013, 769: 45 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[70] Liu Y, Lei J H, Yu P C, Zhang Z K, Zhang X, Cao J X. Laboratory generation of broadband ELF waves by inhomogeneous plasma flow. Geophys Res Lett, 2017, 44: 1634-1640 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[71] Liu Y, Zhang Z K, Lei J H, Cao J X, Yu P C, Zhang X, Xu L, Zhao Y D. Design and construction of Keda Space Plasma Experiment (KSPEX) for the investigation of the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions. Rev Sci Instrum, 2016, 87: 093504 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[72] Liu Z X, Hu Y D. Local magnetic reconnection caused by vortices in the flow field. Geophys Res Lett, 1988, 15: 752-755 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[73] Lu J Y, Liu Z Q, Kabin K, Zhao M X, Liu D D, Zhou Q, Xiao Y. Three dimensional shape of the magnetopause: Global MHD results. J Geophys Res, 2011, 116: A09237 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[74] Lu Q M, Huang C, Xie J L, Wang R S, Wu M Y, Vaivads A, Wang S. Features of separatrix regions in magnetic reconnection: Comparison of 2-D particle-in-cell simulations and Cluster observations. J Geophys Res, 2010, 115: A11208 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[75] Luan X, Lei J, Dou X, Dang T. Double crests of peak height in the equatorial ionospheric F2 layer observed by COSMIC. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2016, 121: 529-537 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[76] Ni B, Cao X, Shprits Y Y, Summers D, Gu X, Fu S, Lou Y. Hot plasma effects on the cyclotron-resonant pitch-angle scattering rates of radiation belt electrons due to EMIC waves. Geophys Res Lett, 2018, 45: 21-30 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[77] Pu Z Y, Kivelson M G. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the magnetopause: Solution for compressible plasmas. J Geophys Res, 1983, 88: 841-852 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[78] Pu Z Y, Korth A, Chen Z X, Friedel R H W, Zong Q G, Wang X M, Hong M H, Fu S Y, Liu Z X, Pulkkinen T I. MHD drift ballooning instability near the inner edge of the near-Earth plasma sheet and its application to substorm onset. J Geophys Res, 1997, 102: 14397-14406 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[79] Pu Z Y, Zhang X G, Wang X G, Wang J, Zhou X Z, Dunlop M W, Xie L, Xiao C J, Zhong Q G, Fu S Y, Liu Z X, Carr C, Ma Z W, Shen C, Lucek E, Rème H, Escoubet P. Global view of dayside magnetic reconnection with the dusk-dawn IMF orientation: A statistical study for Double Star and Cluster data. Geophys Res Lett, 2007, 34: L20101 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[80] Ren Z, Wan W, Liu L, Zhao B, Wei Y, Yue X, Heelis R A. Longitudinal variations of electron temperature and total ion density in the sunset equatorial topside ionosphere. Geophys Res Lett, 2008a, 35: L05108 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[81] Ren Z, Wan W, Liu L. GCITEM-IGGCAS: A new global coupled ionosphere-thermosphere-electrodynamics model. J Atmos Sol-Terrestrial Phys, 2009, 71: 2064-2076 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[82] Ren Z, Wan W, Wei Y, Liu L B, Yu T. A theoretical model for mid- and low-latitude ionospheric electric fields in realistic geomagnetic fields. Chin Sci Bull, 2008b, 53: 3883-3890 CrossRef Google Scholar

[83] Rong Z J, Barabash S, Futaana Y, Stenberg G, Zhang T L, Wan W X, Wei Y, Wang X D, Chai L H, Zhong J. Morphology of magnetic field in near-Venus magnetotail: Venus express observations. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2014, 119: 8838-8847 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[84] Shen C R, Wang Y, Gui B, Ye P, Wang S. Kinematic evolution of a slow CME in corona viewed by STEREO-B on 8 October 2007. Sol Phys, 2011, 269: 389-400 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[85] Shen C R, Wang Y, Wang S, Liu Y, Liu R, Vourlidas A, Miao B, Ye P, Liu J, Zhou Z. Super-elastic collision of large-scale magnetized plasmoids in the heliosphere. Nat Phys, 2012, 8: 923-928 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[86] Shen C, Li X, Dunlop M, Liu Z X, Balogh A, Baker D N, Hapgood M, Wang X. Analyses on the geometrical structure of magnetic field in the current sheet based on cluster measurements. J Geophys Res, 2003, 108: 1168 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[87] Shen C, Rong Z J, Dunlop M W, Ma Y H, Li X, Zeng G, Yan G Q, Wan W X, Liu Z X, Carr C M, Rème H. Spatial gradients from irregular, multiple-point spacecraft configurations. J Geophys Res, 2012, 117: A11207 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[88] Shen F, Shen C, Wang Y, Feng X, Xiang C. Could the collision of CMEs in the heliosphere be super-elastic? Validation through three-dimensional simulations. Geophys Res Lett, 2013, 40: 1457-1461 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[89] Shi Q Q, Tian A M, Bai S C, Hasegawa H, Degeling A W, Pu Z Y, Dunlop M, Guo R L, Yao S T, Zong Q G, Wei Y, Zhou X Z, Fu S Y, Liu Z Q. Dimensionality, coordinate system and reference frame for analysis of in-situ space plasma and field data. Space Sci Rev, 2019, 215: 35 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[90] Shi Q Q, Zong Q G, Fu S Y, Dunlop M W, Pu Z Y, Parks G K, Wei Y, Li W H, Zhang H, Nowada M, Wang Y B, Sun W J, Xiao T, Reme H, Carr C, Fazakerley A N, Lucek E. Solar wind entry into the high-latitude terrestrial magnetosphere during geomagnetically quiet times. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 1466 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[91] Su Z, Zhu H, Xiao F, Zheng H, Wang Y, Shen C, Zhang M, Wang S, Kletzing C A, Kurth W S, Hospodarsky G B, Spence H E, Reeves G D, Funsten H O, Blake J B, Baker D N, Wygant J R. Disappearance of plasmaspheric hiss following interplanetary shock. Geophys Res Lett, 2015, 42: 3129-3140 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[92] Sun T R, Wang C, Sembay S F, Lopez R E, Escoubet C P, Branduardi-Raymont G, Zheng J H, Yu X Z, Guo X C, Dai L, Liu Z Q, Wei F, Guo Y H. Soft X-ray imaging of the magnetosheath and cusps under different solar wind conditions: MHD simulations. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2019, 124: 2435-2450 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[93] Sun T R, Wang C, Zhang J J, Pilipenko V A, Wang Y, Wang J Y. The chain response of the magnetospheric and ground magnetic field to interplanetary shocks. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2015, 120: 157-165 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[94] Tang B B, Wang C, Guo X C. Bow shock and magnetopause contributions to the magnetospheric current system: Hints from the Cluster observations. J Geophys Res, 2012, 117: A01214 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[95] Tian F, France K, Linsky J L, Mauas P J D, Vieytes M C. High stellar FUV/NUV ratio and oxygen contents in the atmospheres of potentially habitable planets. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 2014, 385: 22-27 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[96] Tu C Y. The damping of interplanetary Alfvénic fluctuations and the heating of the solar wind. J Geophys Res, 1988, 93: 7-20 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[97] Tu C Y, Marsch E. Two-fluid model for heating of the solar corona and acceleration of the solar wind by high-frequency Alfvén waves. Sol Phys, 1997, 171: 363-391 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[98] Tu C Y, Zhou C, Marsch E, Xia L D, Zhao L, Wang J X, Wilhelm K. Solar wind origin in coronal funnels. Science, 2005, 308: 519-523 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[99] Wan W, Liu L, Pi X, Zhang M L, Ning B, Xiong J, Ding F. Wavenumber-4 patterns of the total electron content over the low latitude ionosphere. Geophys Res Lett, 2008, 35: L12104 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[100] Wan W, Yuan H, Ning B, Liang J, Ding F. Traveling ionospheric disturbances associated with the tropospheric vortexes around Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Geophys Res Lett, 1998, 25: 3775-3778 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[101] Wang C. New chains of space weather monitoring stations in China. Space Weather, 2010, 8: 08001 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[102] Wang C, Graziella B R. 2018. Progress of solar wind magnetosphere ionosphere link explorer (SMILE) mission. Chin J Space Sci, 38: 657–661. Google Scholar

[103] Wang C, Guo X C, Peng Z, Tang B B, Sun T R, Li W Y, Hu Y Q. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) numerical simulations on the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere: A review. Sci China Earth Sci, 2013a, 56: 1141-1157 CrossRef Google Scholar

[104] Wang C, Han J P, Li H, Peng Z, Richardson J D. Solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling function fitting: Results from a global MHD simulation. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2014, 119: 6199-6212 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[105] Wang C, Richardson J D. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections observed by Voyager 2 between 1 and 30 AU. J Geophys Res, 2004, 109: A06104 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[106] Wang C, Wang J Y, Lopez R E, Zhang L Q, Tang B B, Sun T R, Li H. Effects of the interplanetary magnetic field on the location of the open-closed field line boundary. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2016, 121: 6341-6352 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[107] Wang C, Xia Z Y, Peng Z, Lu Q M. Estimating the open magnetic flux from the interplanetary and ionospheric conditions. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2013b, 118: 1899-1903 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[108] Wang J S, Nielsen E. Behavior of the Martian dayside electron density peak during global dust storms. Planet Space Sci, 2003, 51: 329-338 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[109] Wang R S, Lu Q M, Nakamura R, Huang C, Du A M, Guo F, Teh W, Wu M Y, Lu S, Wang S. Coalescence of magnetic flux ropes in the ion diffusion region of magnetic reconnection. Nat Phys, 2016, 12: 263-267 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[110] Wang Y M, Ye P Z, Wang S, Xue X H. An interplanetary cause of large geomagnetic storms: Fast forward shock overtaking preceding magnetic cloud. Geophys Res Lett, 2003, 30: 1700 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[111] Wang Y, Shen C, Wang S, Ye P. Deflection of coronal mass ejection in the interplanetary medium. Sol Phys, 2004, 222: 329-343 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[112] Wang Y, Zhuang B, Hu Q, Liu R, Shen C, Chi Y. On the twists of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes observed at 1 AU. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2016, 121: 9316-9339 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[113] Wei F S, Dryer M. Propagation of Solar flare-associated interplanetary shock waves in the heliospheric meridional plane. Sol Phys, 1991, 132: 373-394 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[114] Wei F, Liu R, Fan Q, Feng X. Identification of the magnetic cloud boundary layers. J Geophys Res, 2003, 108: 1263 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[115] Wei Y, Fraenz M, Dubinin E, Wan W, Zhang T, Rong Z, Chai L, Zhong J, Zhu R, Futaana Y, Barabash S. Ablation of Venusian oxygen ions by unshocked solar wind. Chin Sci Bull, 2017, 62: 1669-1672 CrossRef Google Scholar

[116] Wei Y, Pu Z, Zong Q, Wan W, Ren Z, Fraenz M, Dubinin E, Tian F, Shi Q, Fu S, Hong M. Oxygen escape from the Earth during geomagnetic reversals: Implications to mass extinction. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 2014, 394: 94-98 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[117] Wei Y, Yao Z, Wan W. China’s roadmap for planetary exploration. Nat Astron, 2018, 2: 346-348 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[118] Wu K, Xu J, Wang W, Sun L, Liu X, Yuan W. Interesting equatorial plasma bubbles observed by all-sky imagers in the equatorial region of China. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2017, 122: 10596-10611 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[119] Wu Z, Li T, Dou X. Seasonal variation of Martian middle atmosphere tides observed by the Mars Climate Sounder. J Geophys Res-Planets, 2015, 120: 2206-2223 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[120] Xiao C J, Wang X G, Pu Z Y, Zhao H, Wang J X, Ma Z W, Fu S Y, Kivelson M G, Liu Z X, Zong Q G, Glassmeier K H, Balogh A, Korth A, Reme H, Escoubet C P. In situ evidence for the structure of the magnetic null in a 3D reconnection event in the Earth’s magnetotail. Nat Phys, 2006, 2: 478-483 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[121] Xiao F, Yang C, Su Z, Zhou Q, He Z, He Y, Baker D N, Spence H E, Funsten H O, Blake J B. Wave-driven butterfly distribution of Van Allen belt relativistic electrons. Nat Commun, 2015, 6: 8590 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[122] Xiao Q M, Wang Z B, E P, Wang X G, Xiao C J, Ren Y, Ji H T, MAO A H, Li Y Y. 2017. Development of plasma sources for Dipole Research EXperiment (DREX). Plasma Sci Tech, 19: 15–20. Google Scholar

[123] Xiao Z, Xiao S, Hao Y, Zhang D H. 2007. Morphological features of ionospheric response to typhoon. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 112: A04304. Google Scholar

[124] Xiong J, Wan W, Ding F, Liu L, Ning B, Niu X. Coupling between mesosphere and ionosphere over Beijing through semidiurnal tides during the 2009 sudden stratospheric warming. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2013, 118: 2511-2521 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[125] Xiong M, Davies J A, Feng X, Li B, Yang L, Xia L, Harrison R A, Hayashi K, Li H, Zhou Y. Prospective white-light imaging and in situ measurements of quiescent large-scale solar-wind streams from the Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter. Astrophys J, 2018, 868: 137 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[126] Xu J, Li Q, Yue J, Hoffmann L, Straka Iii W C, Wang C, Liu M, Yuan W, Han S, Miller S D, Sun L, Liu X, Liu W, Yang J, Ning B. Concentric gravity waves over Northern China observed by an airglow imager network and satellites. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2015, 120: 11058-11078 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[127] Xu J, Wu X, Ma S, Tian M, Yu S, Yeh K C, Franke J S, Tsaoi W H, Lin K H. Tomographic imagine of ionospheric structures and disturbances in the region of East-Asian equatorial anomaly. Sci China Ser E-Technol Sci, 2000, 43: 395-404 CrossRef Google Scholar

[128] Xu R L. The displaced equatorial-neutral sheet surface observed by the ISEE-2 satellite. J Atmos Terrestrial Phys, 1991, 53: 1085-1090 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[129] Xue X H, Dou X K, Lei J, Chen J S, Ding Z H, Li T, Gao Q, Tang W W, Cheng X W, Wei K. Lower thermospheric-enhanced sodium layers observed at low latitude and possible formation: Case studies. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2013, 118: 2409-2418 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[130] Xun Y, Yang G, She C Y, Wang J, Du L, Yan Z, Yang Y, Cheng X, Li F. The first concurrent observations of thermospheric Na layers from two nearby central midlatitude lidar stations. Geophys Res Lett, 2019, 46: 1892-1899 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[131] Yan Y, Wang W, Chen L, Liu F, Geng L, Chen Z. 2018. New interplanetary scintillation array in China for space weather. Sun Geosphere, 13: 153–155. Google Scholar

[132] Yang H, Sato N, Makita K, Kikuchi M, Kadokura A, Ayukawa M, Hu H Q, Liu R Y, Häggström I. Synoptic observations of auroras along the postnoon oval: A survey with all-sky TV observations at Zhongshan, Antarctica. J Atmos Sol-Terrestrial Phys, 2000, 62: 787-797 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[133] Yao Z H, Pu Z Y, Fu S Y, Angelopoulos V, Kubyshkina M, Xing X, Lyons L, Nishimura Y, Xie L, Wang X G, Xiao C J, Cao X, Liu J, Zhang H, Nowada M, Zong Q G, Guo R L, Zhong J, Li J X. Mechanism of substorm current wedge formation: THEMIS observations. Geophys Res Lett, 2012, 39: L13102 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[134] Yi F, Zhang S, Yu C, He Y, Yue X, Huang C, Zhou J. Simultaneous observations of sporadic Fe and Na layers by two closely colocated resonance fluorescence lidars at Wuhan (30.5°N, 114.4°E), China. J Geophys Res, 2007, 112: D04303 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[135] Yi W, Reid I M, Xue X, Murphy D J, Hall C M, Tsutsumi M, Ning B, Li G, Younger J P, Chen T, Dou X. High- and middle-latitude neutral mesospheric density response to geomagnetic storms. Geophys Res Lett, 2018, 45: 436-444 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[136] Yi W, Reid I M, Xue X, Younger J P, Spargo A J, Murphy D J, Chen T, Dou X. First observation of mesosphere response to the solar wind high-speed streams. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2017, 122: 9080-9088 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[137] Yu Y, Wan W, Ren Z, Xiong B, Zhang Y, Hu L, Ning B, Liu L. Seasonal variations of MLT tides revealed by a meteor radar chain based on Hough mode decomposition. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2015, 120: 7030-7048 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[138] Yue X, Hu L, Wei Y, Wan W, Ning B. Ionospheric trend over Wuhan During 1947–2017: Comparison between simulation and observation. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2018, 123: 1396-1409 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[139] Yue X, Schreiner W S, Zeng Z, Kuo Y H, Xue X. Case study on complex sporadic E layers observed by GPS radio occultations. Atmos Meas Tech, 2015, 8: 225-236 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[140] Zhang H, Khurana K K, Kivelson M G, Fatemi S, Holmström M, Angelopoulos V, Jia Y D, Wan W X, Liu L B, Chen Y D, Le H J, Shi Q Q, Liu W L. Alfvén wings in the lunar wake: The role of pressure gradients. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2016, 121: 10698-10711 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[141] Zhang J J, Wang C, Tang B B. Modeling geomagnetically induced electric field and currents by combining a global MHD model with a local one-dimensional method. Space Weather, 2012, 10: S05005 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[142] Zhang M L, Liu L, Wan W, Ning B. An update global model of hmF2 from values estimated from ionosonde and COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 radio occultation. Adv Space Res, 2014, 53: 395-402 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[143] Zhang Q H, Zhang B C, Lockwood M, Hu H Q, Moen J, Ruohoniemi J M, Thomas E G, Zhang S R, Yang H G, Liu R Y, McWilliams K A, Baker J B H. Direct observations of the evolution of polar cap ionization patches. Science, 2013, 339: 1597-1600 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[144] Zhang Q H, Zong Q G, Lockwood M, Heelis R A, Hairston M, Liang J, McCrea I, Zhang B C, Moen J, Zhang S R, Zhang Y L, Ruohoniemi J M, Lester M, Thomas E G, Liu R Y, Dunlop M W, Liu Y C M, Ma Y Z. Earth’s ion upflow associated with polar cap patches: Global and in situ observations. Geophys Res Lett, 2016, 43: 1845-1853 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[145] Zhang S D, Yi F, Huang C M, Huang K M, Gan Q, Zhang Y H, Gong Y. Latitudinal and altitudinal variability of lower atmospheric inertial gravity waves revealed by U.S. radiosonde data. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2013, 118: 7750-7764 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[146] Zhang S, Yi F. 2004. A numerical study on global propagations and amplitude growths of large‐scale gravity wave packets. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 109: D07106. Google Scholar

[147] Zhang T L, Lu Q M, Baumjohann W, Russell C T, Fedorov A, Barabash S, Coates A J, Du A M, Cao J B, Nakamura R, Teh W L, Wang R S, Dou X K, Wang S, Glassmeier K H, Auster H U, Balikhin M. Magnetic reconnection in the near Venusian magnetotail. Science, 2012, 336: 567-570 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[148] Zhang X Y, Zong Q G, Wang Y F, Zhang H, Xie L, Fu S Y, Yuan C J, Yue C, Yang B, Pu Z Y. 2010. ULF waves excited by negative/positive solar wind dynamic pressure impulses at geosynchronous orbit. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 115: A10221. Google Scholar

[149] Zhang Y, Xiong J, Liu L, Wan W. A global morphology of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere revealed by the 8-year SABER/TIMED data. J Geophys Res, 2012, 117: D21101 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[150] Zhao B, Wan W, Liu L. Responses of equatorial anomaly to the October-November 2003 superstorms. Ann Geophys, 2005, 23: 693-706 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[151] Zhao B, Wan W, Reinisch B, Yue X, Le H, Liu J, Xiong B. Features of the F3 layer in the low-latitude ionosphere at sunset. J Geophys Res, 2011, 116: A01313 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[152] Zhao H, Ni B, Li X, Baker D N, Johnston W R, Zhang W, Xiang Z, Gu X, Jaynes A N, Kanekal S G, Blake J B, Claudepierre S G, Temerin M A, Funsten H O, Reeves G D, Boyd A J. Plasmaspheric hiss waves generate a reversed energy spectrum of radiation belt electrons. Nat Phys, 2019, 15: 367-372 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[153] Zhao H, Wang J X, Zhang J, Xiao C J. A new method of identifying 3D null points in solar vector magnetic fields. Chin J Astron Astrophys, 2005, 5: 443-447 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[154] Zhao L L, Zhang H, Zong Q G. Global ULF waves generated by a hot flow anomaly. Geophys Res Lett, 2017, 44: 5283-5291 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[155] Zhong J, Wang W, Yue X, Burns A G, Dou X, Lei J. Long-duration depletion in the topside ionospheric total electron content during the recovery phase of the March 2015 strong storm. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2016, 121: 4733-4747 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[156] Zhong J, Wei Y, Pu Z Y, Wang X G, Wan W X, Slavin J A, Cao X, Raines J M, Zhang H, Xiao C J, Du A M, Wang R S, Dewey R M, Chai L H, Rong Z J, Li Y. MESSENGER observations of rapid and impulsive magnetic reconnection in Mercury’s magnetotail. Astrophys J, 2018, 860: L20 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[157] Zhou X Z, Angelopoulos V, Sergeev V A, Runov A. Accelerated ions ahead of earthward propagating dipolarization fronts. J Geophys Res, 2010, 115: A00I03 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[158] Zhou X Z, Zong Q G, Pu Z Y, Fritz T A, Dunlop M W, Shi Q Q, Wang J, Wei Y. Multiple triangulation analysis: Another approach to determine the orientation of magnetic flux ropes. Ann Geophys, 2006, 24: 1759-1765 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[159] Zhou X Z, Wang Z H, Zong Q G, Rankin R, Kivelson M G, Chen X R, Blake J B, Wygant J R, Kletzing C A. Charged particle behavior in the growth and damping stages of ultralow frequency waves: Theory and Van Allen Probes observations. J Geophys Res-Space Phys, 2016, 121: 3254-3263 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[160] Zong Q G, Hao Y X, Zou H, Fu S Y, Zhou X Z, Ren J, Wang L H, Yuan C J, Liu Z Y, Jia X H, Quan L, Liu Y, Wang Y F. Radial propagation of magnetospheric substorm-injected energetic electrons observed using a BD-IES instrument and Van Allen Probes. Sci China Earth Sci, 2016, 59: 1508-1516 CrossRef Google Scholar

[161] Zong Q G, Wang Y F, Zhang H, Fu S Y, Zhang H, Wang C R, Yuan C J, Vogiatzis I. Fast acceleration of inner magnetospheric hydrogen and oxygen ions by shock induced ULF waves. J Geophys Res, 2012, 117: A11206 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[162] Zou H, Wang J S, Nielsen E. Effect of the seasonal variations in the lower atmosphere on the altitude of the ionospheric main peak at Mars. J Geophys Res, 2005, 110: A09311 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[163] Zou H, Ye Y G, Zong Q G, Chen H F, Zou J Q, Chen J, Shi W H, Yu X Q, Zhong W Y, Wang Y F, Zhou X Z, Hao Y X, Chen X R, Jia X H, Xu F, Shao S P, Wang B, Hao X Y, Zhang X X. Imaging energetic electron spectrometer onboard a Chinese navigation satellite in the inclined GEO orbit. Sci China Tech Sci, 2018, 61: 1845-1865 CrossRef Google Scholar

Copyright 2020 Science China Press Co., Ltd. 《中国科学》杂志社有限责任公司 版权所有

京ICP备18024590号-1