logo

SCIENTIA SINICA Terrae, Volume 49 , Issue 12 : 1833-1874(2019) https://doi.org/10.1360/SSTe-2019-0134

新中国成立70年来的中国大气科学研究: 大气物理与大气环境篇

More info
  • ReceivedJun 20, 2019
  • AcceptedNov 4, 2019
  • PublishedNov 26, 2019

Abstract

新中国成立以来, 中国大气物理与大气环境学科不断发展, 为大气科学的发展提供了重要支撑, 为国民经济的发展提供了重要保障. 文章着重介绍新中国成立70年以来中国大气物理与大气环境学科发展的总体概况, 梳理改革开放40年大气物理与大气环境学科的主要研究进展, 总结21世纪以来的突出研究成果, 指出面临的重大问题和挑战, 提出未来的重点方向和发展建议.


Acknowledgment

感谢陈仁杰、陈璞珑、郑逸璇、刘西川、胡帅、徐晓齐、朱磊、贾星灿、牛越、李倩惠、杨帆、曹云擎、高丽波等对本文撰写所做出的贡献.


References

[1] 白文广, 张鹏, 张文建, 李俊. 2016. 一种高效计算高光谱分辨率红外大气辐射传输的方法. 红外与毫米波学报, 35: 99–108. Google Scholar

[2] 白文广, 张鹏, 张文建, 马刚, 漆成莉. 2017. 遥感用途的高光谱中短波红外辐射传输精确计算. 中国科学: 地球科学, 47: 1483–1492. Google Scholar

[3] 鲍艳, 吕世华. 2006. 干旱、半干旱区陆-气相互作用的研究进展. 中国沙漠, 26: 454–460. Google Scholar

[4] 毕研盟, 毛节泰, 李成才, 符养. 2006. 利用GPS的倾斜路径观测暴雨过程中水汽空间分布. 大气科学, 30: 1169–1176. Google Scholar

[5] 蔡启铭, 杨平. 1990. 六梭柱和三梭锥冰晶的散射相矩阵——一种矢量射线追踪方法. 气象学报, 48: 198–209. Google Scholar

[6] 蔡旭晖, 陈家宜. 2000. 水平非均匀对流边界层热量平衡和平流输送作用的大涡模拟. 大气科学, 24: 95–102. Google Scholar

[7] 蔡旭晖. 2008. 湍流微气象观测的印痕分析方法及其应用拓展. 大气科学, 32: 123–132. Google Scholar

[8] 曹冬杰, 陆风, 张晓虎, 张志清. 2018. 风云四号卫星闪电探测产品在强对流天气监测中的应用. 卫星应用: 18–23. Google Scholar

[9] 柴发合, 陈义珍, 文毅, 段宁, 谢绍东, 薛志钢, 曹东, 刘静, 宋国君, 王淑兰. 2006. 区域大气污染物总量控制技术与示范研究. 环境科学研究, 7: 163–171. Google Scholar

[10] 巢清尘, 丁一汇. 1999. 南海季风试验. 科学, 2: 24–26. Google Scholar

[11] 陈洪滨, 李军, 马舒庆, 胡树贞. 2019. 海洋气象观测技术研发进展. 科技导报, 37: 91–97. Google Scholar

[12] 陈家宜. 1981. 环境湍流对烟云抬升的作用. 气象学报, 39: 59–69. Google Scholar

[13] 陈秀红, 魏合理, 徐青山. 2011. 红外大气透过率的计算模式. 红外与激光工程, 40: 811–816. Google Scholar

[14] 程纯枢, 严开伟. 1959. 十年来我国气象观测技术与仪器研究的进展. 气象学报, 30: 212–217. Google Scholar

[15] 崔喜爱, 曹云昌, 赵培涛. 2015. 飞机气象观测研究述评. 气象水文海洋仪器, 32: 96–99. Google Scholar

[16] 代中华, 高太长, 赵世军, 马宁, 苏伟. 2016. 二维傅里叶变换在露点仪镜面图像偏移修正中的应用. 气象科学, 36: 531–536. Google Scholar

[17] 丁国安, 纪湘明, 房秀梅, 符基萌, 吴凡, 苏维瀚, 宋文质, 李巍, 俞香仁, 江祖凡, 许道国. 1991. 庐山云雾水化学组分的某些特征. 气象学报, 49: 190–197. Google Scholar

[18] 董超华, 杨军, 卢乃锰, 杨忠东, 施进明, 张鹏, 刘玉洁, 蔡斌. 2010. 风云三号A星(FY-3A)的主要性能与应用. 地球信息科学学报, 12: 458–465. Google Scholar

[19] 董瑶海. 2016. 风云四号气象卫星及其应用展望. 上海航天, 33: 1–8. Google Scholar

[20] 段民征, 吕达仁. 2007. 矢量辐射传输方程求解中的δ-M方法. 自然科学进展, 17: 488–493. Google Scholar

[21] 段娜, 李清河, 多普增, 汪季. 植物响应大气氮沉降研究进展. 世界林业研究, 32: 6–11. Google Scholar

[22] 范绍佳, 王安宇, 樊琦, 刘吉, 王宝民. 2006. 珠江三角洲大气边界层特征及其概念模型. 26: 4–6. Google Scholar

[23] 范秀英, 张微, 韩圣慧. 1999. 我国汽车尾气污染状况及其控制对策分析. 环境科学, 20: 102–108. Google Scholar

[24] 冯兆忠, 李品, 袁相洋, 高峰, 姜立军, 代碌碌. 2018. 我国地表臭氧生态环境效应研究进展. 生态学报, 38: 1530–1541. Google Scholar

[25] 高会旺, 黄美元, 徐华英, 周玲. 1997. 欧拉型区域硫沉降模式研究. 大气科学, 21: 616–624. Google Scholar

[26] 高太长, 刘磊, 李浩. 2007. 近红外波段气溶胶粒子形状和性质对散射特性的影响. 解放军理工大学学报(自然科学版), 8: 302–306. Google Scholar

[27] 高太长, 刘磊, 赵世军, 孙学金, 刘剑. 2010. 全天空测云技术现状及进展. 应用气象学报, 21: 101–109. Google Scholar

[28] 高仲辉, 黄兴玉, 魏鸣, 范辉, 吴举秀, 李勇. 2014. 机载W波段双线偏振测云雷达回波分析. 雷达科学与技术, 12: 561–568. Google Scholar

[29] 郜婧婧, 段民征, 孙淑珍. 2014. 一个简单的非水平均匀的大气临边矢量辐射传输模式. 遥感技术与应用, 29: 735–743. Google Scholar

[30] 葛茂发. 2006. 气候与环境变化中的大气化学研究, 21世纪初大气科学前沿与展望——第四次全国大气科学前沿学科领域研讨会论文集. 北京: 气象出版社. Google Scholar

[31] 顾震潮. 1962. 论近年来云雾滴谱形成理论的研究. 气象学报, 32: 267–284. Google Scholar

[32] 顾震潮. 1965. 雷电活动的单站定位问题. 科学通报, 10: 973–978. Google Scholar

[33] 郭启云, 杨加春, 杨荣康, 钱媛, 曹晓钟. 2018. 球载式下投国产北斗探空仪测风性能评估. 南京信息工程大学学报(自然科学版), 10: 629–640. Google Scholar

[34] 郝吉明, 贺克斌. 1996. 中国燃煤二氧化硫污染控制战略. 中国环境科学 16: 208–212. Google Scholar

[35] 郝吉明, 吴烨, 傅立新, 何东全, 贺克斌. 2002. 中国城市机动车排放污染控制规划体系研究. 应用气象学报, 13: 195–202. Google Scholar

[36] 郝吉明, 周学龙, 傅立新, 李琪琳. 1996. 我国东部地区硫沉降模拟研究——模式开发和性能分析. 中国环境科学: 241–245. Google Scholar

[37] 何东全. 2000. 城市机动车污染评价体系及排放控制目标研究. 博士学位论文. 北京: 清华大学. Google Scholar

[38] 贺克斌, 郝吉明, 傅立新, 李铭哲, 刘阳. 1996. 我国汽车排气污染现状与发展. 环境科学, 17: 80–83. Google Scholar

[39] 洪延超. 1996. 积层混合云数值模拟研究(I)——模式及其微物理过程参数化. 气象学报: 544–557. Google Scholar

[40] 胡非, 洪钟祥, 陈家宜, 刘熙明. 2006. 白洋淀地区非均匀大气边界层的综合观测研究——实验介绍及近地层微气象特征分析. 大气科学, 30: 883–893. Google Scholar

[41] 胡非, 洪钟祥, 雷孝恩. 2003. 大气边界层和大气环境研究进展. 大气科学, 27: 712–728. Google Scholar

[42] 胡隐樵, 高由禧. 1994. 黑河实验(HEIFE)——对干旱地区陆面过程的一些新认识. 气象学报, 52: 285–296. Google Scholar

[43] 胡隐樵, 张强. 1996. 大气边界层相似性理论及其应用. 地球科学进展, 11: 550–554. Google Scholar

[44] 胡隐樵, 左洪超. 2004. 边界层湍流输送的若干问题和大气线性热力学. 高原气象, 23: 132–138. Google Scholar

[45] 胡志晋. 1979. 积云形成暖雨的条件. 气象学报, 37: 72–79. Google Scholar

[46] 华灯鑫, 宋小全. 2008. 先进激光雷达探测技术研究进展. 红外与激光工程, 37: 21–27. Google Scholar

[47] 黄彬, 赵伟. 2017. 国家级海洋气象业务现状及发展趋势. 气象科技进展, 7: 53–59. Google Scholar

[48] 黄朝军, 刘亚锋, 吴振森. 2007. 烟尘簇团粒子光学截面和散射矩阵的数值计算. 物理学报: 4068–4074. Google Scholar

[49] 黄红莲, 黄印博, 饶瑞中. 2007. 内混合强吸收气溶胶粒子光散射的等效性. 强激光与粒子束: 1066–1070. Google Scholar

[50] 黄美元, 洪钟祥, 熊尚清. 1965. 地面连续云滴谱仪. 气象学报, 32: 257–262. Google Scholar

[51] 黄荣辉, 周德刚, 陈文, 周连童, 韦志刚, 张强, 高晓清, 卫国安, 候旭宏. 2013. 关于中国西北干旱区陆-气相互作用及其对气候影响研究的最近进展. 大气科学, 37: 189–210. Google Scholar

[52] 黄兴忠, 金亚秋. 1997. 随机分布的多个非球形群聚散射体的极化散射及其数值模拟. 电子科学学刊: 376–381. Google Scholar

[53] 霍娟, 吕达仁. 2002. 全天空数字相机观测云量的初步研究. 南京气象学院学报, 25: 242–246. Google Scholar

[54] 嵇驿民, 王宝瑞. 1989. 扁旋转椭球状冰水混合粒子对偏振雷达波的散射. 南京气象学院学报: 56–66. Google Scholar

[55] 蒋维楣, 苗世光, 张宁, 刘红年, 胡非, 李磊, 王咏薇, 王成刚. 2010. 城市气象与边界层数值模拟研究. 地球科学进展, 25: 463–473. Google Scholar

[56] 蒋维楣, 王咏薇, 张宁. 2009. 城市陆面过程与边界层结构研究. 地球科学进展, 24: 411–419. Google Scholar

[57] 金亚秋, 曾亮. 1992. 一层非均匀随机取向非球形粒子的全极化散射. 电子学报: 55–61. Google Scholar

[58] 孔凡铀, 黄美元, 徐华英. 1990. 对流云中冰相过程的三维数值模拟——Ⅰ: 模式建立及冷云参数化. 大气科学: 441–453. Google Scholar

[59] 孔琴心, 王庚辰. 1990. 大气臭氧9.6μm带和4.8μm带的总吸收研究. 见: 大气科学文集. Google Scholar

[60] 雷恒池, 洪延超, 赵震, 肖辉, 郭学良. 2008. 近年来云降水物理和人工影响天气研究进展. 大气科学: 967–974. Google Scholar

[61] 雷孝恩, 贾新媛, 袁素珍, 骆启仁, 陈思龙, 徐渝. 1985. 重庆酸雨分布的一个数值模拟. 大气科学: 276–284. Google Scholar

[62] 黎洁, 毛节泰. 1989. 光学遥感大气气溶胶特性. 气象学报, 47: 450–456. Google Scholar

[63] 李柏, 李伟. 2011. 阳江第八届国际探空系统比对试验综述. 气象科技进展, 3: 6–13. Google Scholar

[64] 李德军, 莫江明, 方运霆, 彭少麟, Gundersen P. 2003. 氮沉降对森林植物的影响. 生态学报: 1891–1900. Google Scholar

[65] 李富余, 张宏升, 陈家宜. 2004. 大气边界层湍流能量交换特征研究进展. 气象科技, 32: 305–310. Google Scholar

[66] 李姣, 段民征, 覃军. 2014. 基于逐次散射法的海洋——大气矢量辐射传输模式. 遥感技术与应用, 29: 181–211. Google Scholar

[67] 李其琛. 1962. 云和雨的相干散射与雷达气象方程. 气象学报: 119–128. Google Scholar

[68] 李诗民, 王先桥, 周明煜, 薛峰, 李丙瑞, 王署东. 2010. 极区通量观测系统及其在国际极地年(IPY)全球协同观测中的应用. 海洋预报, 27: 62–71. Google Scholar

[69] 李新, 李小文, 李增元, 王建, 马明国, 刘强, 肖青, 胡泽勇, 车涛, 王介民, 柳钦火, 陈尔学, 阎广建, 刘绍民, 王维真, 张立新, 王锦地, 牛铮, 晋锐, 冉有华, 王亮绪. 2012. 黑河综合遥感联合试验研究进展: 概述. 遥感技术与应用, 27: 637–649. Google Scholar

[70] 李雁, 李峰, 赵志强, 郭海平, 孙林花, 李仲龙, 周青, 周薇. 2013. 中国区域自动气象站运行监控系统建设. 气象科技, 41: 231–277. Google Scholar

[71] 李煜斌, 高志球, 袁仁民, 苗世光, 张兵, 胡艳冰. 2009. 湍流通量参数化方案的非迭代方法研究. 大气科学, 33: 760–770. Google Scholar

[72] 李宗恺, 朱玄玄. 1987. 机械湍流限定的热浮力烟流抬升模式. 中国科学B辑, 7: 780–788. Google Scholar

[73] 林朝晖, 刘辉志, 谢正辉, 王爱慧, 刘少锋. 2008. 陆面水文过程研究进展. 大气科学, 32: 935–949. Google Scholar

[74] 刘炳江, 郝吉明, 贺克斌, 柴发合, 薛志刚, 樊元生, 刘孜, 赵维钧. 1998. 中国酸雨和二氧化硫污染控制区区划及实施政策研究. 中国环境科学, 18: 1–7. Google Scholar

[75] 刘春霞, 廖菲, 赵中阔. 2012. 热带海气边界层观测研究若干进展. 气象科技进展, 2: 27–31. Google Scholar

[76] 刘罡, 孙鉴泞, 蒋维楣, 刘红年, 袁仁民, 罗涛. 2009. 城市大气边界层的综合观测研究——实验介绍与近地层微气象特征分析. 中国科学技术大学学报, 39: 23–32. Google Scholar

[77] 刘广员, 邱金桓. 2004. 一个三维Monte-Carlo地气耦合辐射传输模式. 大气科学, 28: 69–77. Google Scholar

[78] 刘辉志, 董文杰, 符淙斌, 石立庆. 2004. 半干旱地区吉林通榆“干旱化和有序人类活动”长期观测实验. 气候与环境研究, 9: 378–389. Google Scholar

[79] 刘俊, 黄兴友, 何雨芩, 王振会, 王金虎. 2015. X波段相控阵气象雷达回波数据的对比分析. 高原气象, 34: 1167–1176. Google Scholar

[80] 刘黎平, 葛润生. 2006. 中国气象科学研究院雷达气象研究50年. 应用气象学报, 17: 682–689. Google Scholar

[81] 刘黎平, 莫月琴, 沙雪松, 苏涛. 2005. C波段双多基地多普勒雷达资料处理和三维变分风场反演方法研究. 大气科学, 29: 144–154. Google Scholar

[82] 刘黎平, 吴林林, 吴翀, 汪旭东, 陈晓辉, 曹俊武, 庄薇. 2014. X波段相控阵天气雷达对流过程观测外场试验及初步结果分析. 大气科学, 38: 1079–1094. Google Scholar

[83] 刘西川, 高太长, 胡云涛, 舒小健, 翟东力. 2017. 基于单帧双脉冲成像的降水微物理特征测量仪. 光学精密工程, 25: 842–849. Google Scholar

[84] 刘欣生. 1999. 雷电物理及人工引发雷电研究十年进展与展望. 高原气象, 18: 266–272. Google Scholar

[85] 刘亚文, 陈亦望, 徐鑫, 刘宗信. 2013. 基于辅助差分方程的完全匹配层在时域多分辨率分析算法中的应用与性能分析. 物理学报, 62: 122–127. Google Scholar

[86] 刘智深. 2015. 多普勒测风激光雷达从车载到星载. 大气与环境光学学报, 10: 126–138. Google Scholar

[87] 卢建平, 黄建平, 郭学良, 于子平, 雷连发, 张北斗. 2014. 探测大气温湿廓线的35通道微波辐射计设计原理与特点. 气象科技, 42: 193–197. Google Scholar

[88] 陆克定, 张远航. 2010. HOx自由基的实地测量及其化学机制解析. 化学进展, 22: 500–514. Google Scholar

[89] 罗淦, 王自发. 2006. 全球环境大气输送模式(GEATM)的建立及其验证. 大气科学, 30: 504–518. Google Scholar

[90] 吕超群, 田汉勤, 黄耀. 2007. 陆地生态系统氮沉降增加的生态效应. 植物生态学报, 31: 205–218. Google Scholar

[91] 吕达仁, 王普才, 邱金桓, 陶诗言. 2003. 大气遥感与卫星气象学研究的进展与回顾. 大气科学, 27: 552–566. Google Scholar

[92] 吕达仁. 1999. 我国大气物理研究进展. 物理, 28: 654–661. Google Scholar

[93] 马舒庆, 吴可军, 陈冬冬, 汤志亚, 李肖霞, 杜波, 曹治国. 2011. 天气现象自动化观测系统设计. 气象, 37: 1166–1172. Google Scholar

[94] 马耀明, 姚檀栋, 王介民. 2006. 青藏高原能量和水循环试验研究——GAME/Tibet与CAMP/Tibet研究进展. 高原气象, 25: 344–351. Google Scholar

[95] 毛节泰, 顾震潮. 1963. 层状云含水量分布中超绝热含水量的形成. 见: 顾震潮, 等著. 云雾降水微物理的一些理论问题. 北京: 科学出版社. 59. Google Scholar

[96] 毛节泰, 栾胜基. 1985. 大气散射相函数的计算. 大气科学, 9: 107–111. Google Scholar

[97] 毛节泰, 郑国光. 2006. 对人工影响天气若干问题的探讨. 应用气象学报, 17: 643–646. Google Scholar

[98] 毛节泰. 1992. 广东、广西地区酸沉降统计模式的研究. 环境科学学报, 12: 28–36. Google Scholar

[99] 聂劲松, 秦敏, 杨勇, 张为俊. 2002. 用烟雾箱研究甲苯与OH自由基光化学反应. 原子与分子物理学报, 19: 304–306. Google Scholar

[100] 牛生杰, 马铁汉, 管月娥, 卢玉莲. 1992. 宁夏夏季降水性层状云微结构观测分析. 高原气象, 11: 241–248. Google Scholar

[101] 郄秀书, 刘欣生, 张广庶, 余晔, 郭昌明, 王道洪, 牛尾知雄, 渡边贞司. 1998. 甘肃中川地区雷暴的地闪特征. 气象学报. 57-67. Google Scholar

[102] 郄秀书, 吕达仁, 陈洪滨, 王普才, 段树, 章文星, 王鑫. 2008. 大气探测高技术及应用研究进展. 大气科学, 32: 867–881. Google Scholar

[103] 郄秀书, 杨静, 蒋如斌, 王彩霞, 冯桂力, 吴书君, 张广庶. 2012. 山东人工引发雷电综合观测实验及回击电流特征. 大气科学, 36: 77–88. Google Scholar

[104] 秦瑜, 修艾军. 1992. 一个欧拉型污染物沉降的中尺度模式. 北京大学学报(自然科学版), 28: 602–612. Google Scholar

[105] 邱金桓, 吕达仁, 陈洪滨, 王庚辰, 石广玉. 2003. 现代大气物理学研究进展. 大气科学, 27: 628–652. Google Scholar

[106] 邱金桓. 1986. 辐射传输方程的一个改进算法. 大气科学, 10: 250–257. Google Scholar

[107] 邱实, 周璧华, 郭建明, 李炎新. 2011. 闪电电场测量研究. 电波科学学报, 26: 79–83. Google Scholar

[108] 饶瑞中. 1996. 外混合气溶胶粒子光散射的等效性. 光学学报, 16: 77–86. Google Scholar

[109] 任凯锋, 李建军, 王文丽, 张会强. 2005. 光化学烟雾模拟实验系统. 环境科学学报, 25: 1431–1435. Google Scholar

[110] 任信荣, Matthiasotting, 邵可声, 唐孝炎. 1999. 气体扩张激光诱导荧光技术测量氢氧自由基. 现代科学仪器, 9: 11–13. Google Scholar

[111] 尚震, 谢晨波, 钟志庆, 王邦新, 王珍珠, 赵明, 谭敏, 刘东, 王英俭. 2016. 用于测量对流层水汽的拉曼激光雷达. 红外与激光工程, 45: 184–189. Google Scholar

[112] 邵选民, 刘欣生. 1987. 云中闪电及云下部正电荷的初步分析. 高原气象, 6: 317–325. Google Scholar

[113] 石广玉, 曲燕妮. 1985. 一种新的处理漫射辐射的近似方法. 科学通报, 30: 1887–1887. Google Scholar

[114] 沈瑾, 甘泉, 邓小丽, 宋小明. 2011. 天气雷达的现状及发展趋势. 电子设计工程, 19: 82–85. Google Scholar

[115] 盛裴轩, 毛节泰. 1987. 我国大气污染物远距离传输的估计——Ⅰ: 轨迹分析. 气象学报, 45: 65–71. Google Scholar

[116] 石冬晨, 华灯鑫, 雷宁, 高飞, 汪丽, 闫庆, 周毅. 2018. 日盲紫外域拉曼激光雷达探测大气水汽技术研究. 光谱学与光谱分析, 38: 1430–1436. Google Scholar

[117] 石广玉. 2007. 大气辐射学. 北京: 科学出版社. Google Scholar

[118] 石广玉. 1998. 大气辐射计算的吸收系数分布模式. 大气科学, 22: 277–294. Google Scholar

[119] 史东东, 郑栋, 张阳, 张义军, 黄治钢, 吕伟涛, 陈绍东, 颜旭. 2018. 低频电场变化探测阵列建设及其初步运行结果. 中国科学: 地球科学, 48: 113–126. Google Scholar

[120] 孙东松, 钟志庆, 王邦新, 夏祥鳌. 2006. 基于FP标准具的直接探测多普勒测风激光雷达. 量子电子学报, 23: 303–306. Google Scholar

[121] 孙贤明, 王海华, 刘万强, 申晋. 2010. 沙尘暴粒子的非球形模型及其对激光的多次散射特性研究. 光学学报, 30: 1506–1510. Google Scholar

[122] 唐孝炎, 毕木天, 李金龙, 张学进, 汤大钢, 张雨田. 1982. 光化学烟雾箱的试制和性能实验. 环境化学, 1: 344–351. Google Scholar

[123] 汪宏七, 赵高祥. 1989. 在强烈各向异性散射大气中用离散坐标法进行辐射强度计算. 中国科学B辑: 化学 生命科学 地学, 19: 1330–1339. Google Scholar

[124] 王宝瑞, 嵇驿民. 1989. 分层均匀旋转椭球体对偏振电磁波的散射理论及数值计算. 大气科学, 13: 329–342. Google Scholar

[125] 王宝瑞, 张培昌, 嵇驿民. 1991. 微波衰减的准解析计算方法. 南京气象学院学报, 14: 34–42. Google Scholar

[126] 王宝瑞, 张培昌, 蒋修武, 嵇驿民. 1997. 分层旋转椭球散射场准解析解级数系数的确定. 南京气象学院学报, 20: 1–10. Google Scholar

[127] 王道洪, 郄秀书, 郭昌明. 2000. 雷电与人工引雷. 上海: 上海交大出版社. Google Scholar

[128] 王介民. 1999. 陆面过程实验和地气相互作用研究——从HEIFE到IMGRASS和GAME-Tibet/TIPEX. 高原气象, 18: 280–294. Google Scholar

[129] 王敏仲, 徐洪雄, 王寅钧, 买买提艾力·买买提依明, 张建涛. 2018. 塔克拉玛干沙漠夏季晴空对流边界层大涡模拟. 中国沙漠, 38: 1275–1286. Google Scholar

[130] 王明星. 1999. 大气化学. 北京: 气象出版社. Google Scholar

[131] 王体健, 李宗恺, 南方. 1996. 区域酸性沉降的数值研究——Ⅰ. 模式. 大气科学, 20: 606–614. Google Scholar

[132] 王哲, 王自发, 李杰, 郑海涛, 晏平仲, 李健军. 2014. 气象-化学双向耦合模式(WRF-NAQPMS)研制及其在京津冀秋季重霾模拟中的应用. 气候与环境研究, 19: 153–163. Google Scholar

[133] 王振会, 张培昌. 1998. 冰水混合球的微波吸收与散射. 南京气象学院学报, 21: 469–477. Google Scholar

[134] 王志立, 郭品文, 张华. 2009. 黑碳气溶胶直接辐射强迫及其对中国夏季降水影响的模拟研究. 气候与环境研究, 14: 161–171. Google Scholar

[135] 卫晓东, 张华. 2011. 非球形沙尘气溶胶光学特性的分析研究. 光学学报, 31: 0501002-1–8. Google Scholar

[136] 魏合理, 陈秀红, 饶瑞中. 2007. 通用大气辐射传输软件CART介绍. 大气与环境光学学报, 2: 446–450. Google Scholar

[137] 魏合理, 宋正方. 1995. 红外辐射大气透射率的计算. 红外与毫米波学报, 14: 159–160. Google Scholar

[138] 魏鸣, 张思进, 刘佳, 邵程远, 刘晓东. 2011. 机载气象雷达扫描的理想模型仿真算法. 大气科学学报, 34: 28–35. Google Scholar

[139] 吴北婴, 李卫, 陈洪滨, 李放, 章文星, 吕达仁. 1998. 大气辐射传输实用算法. 北京: 气象出版社. Google Scholar

[140] 吴北婴, 吕达仁. 1989. 用Monte-Carlo方法模拟火山爆发后的曙暮光特征. 大气科学: 204–213. Google Scholar

[141] 吴兑, 毛节泰, 邓雪娇, 铁学熙, 张远航, 曾立民, 李菲, 谭浩波, 毕雪岩, 黄晓莹, 陈静, 邓涛. 2009. 珠江三角洲黑碳气溶胶及其辐射特性的观测研究. 中国科学D辑: 地球科学, 39: 1542–1553. Google Scholar

[142] 吴海, 牟玉静, 张晓山, 宋文质, 周丽. 2001. 相对速率法测OH自由基与几种低碳醇的反应速率常数. 环境科学学报, 21: 525–529. Google Scholar

[143] 肖迪娥, 张望. 2009. 气象气球的现状和发展趋势(二). 中国橡胶, 25: 9–11. Google Scholar

[144] 谢晨波, 周军, 岳古明, 戚福弟, 范爱媛. 2007. 测量大气气溶胶和水汽的车载式激光雷达系统. 红外与激光工程, 36: 365–372. Google Scholar

[145] 谢兴生, 陶善昌, 周秀骥. 1999. 数字摄像法测量气象能见度. 科学通报, 44: 97–l00. Google Scholar

[146] 徐大海, 朱蓉, 李宗恺. 1997. 论边界层中的大气扩散PDF模式. 气象学报, 55: 670–680. Google Scholar

[147] 徐祥德, 陈联寿. 2006. 青藏高原大气科学试验研究进展. 应用气象学报, 17: 756–772. Google Scholar

[148] 徐祥德, 丁国安, 卞林根, 谢立安. 2004. BECAPEX科学试验城市建筑群落边界层大气环境特征及其影响. 气象学报, 62: 663–671. Google Scholar

[149] 徐祥德, 周明煜, 陈家宜, 卞林根, 张光智, 刘辉志, 李诗明, 张宏升, 赵冀俊, 索朗多吉, 王继志. 2001. 青藏高原地-气过程动力、热力结构综合物理图象. 中国科学D辑: 地球科学, 31: 428–441. Google Scholar

[150] 许焕斌. 1964. 衡山云雾微结构起伏的初步观测试验. 气象学报, 34: 539–547. Google Scholar

[151] 许健民, 郭强, 陆其峰, 陆风, 张晓虎. 2014. 风云气象卫星数据处理算法的若干创新. 气象学报, 72: 1023–1038. Google Scholar

[152] 许健民, 杨军, 张志清, 孙安来. 2010. 我国气象卫星的发展与应用. 气象, 36: 94–100. Google Scholar

[153] 许小峰. 2003. 中国新一代多普勒天气雷达网的建设与技术应用. 中国工程科学: 7–14. Google Scholar

[154] 言穆弘, 郭昌明, 葛正谟. 1996a. 积云动力和电过程二维模式研究Ⅰ. 理论和模式. 地球物理学报, 39(S1): 52–64. Google Scholar

[155] 言穆弘, 郭昌明, 葛正谟. 1996b. 积云动力和电过程二维模式研究Ⅱ. 计算结果. 地球物理学报, 39(S1): 65–77. Google Scholar

[156] 杨成武, 刘文清, 张玉钧. 2011. 半导体激光云高仪小波去噪算法研究. 大气与环境光学学报. Google Scholar

[157] 杨军. 2012. 气象卫星及其应用. 北京: 气象出版社. Google Scholar

[158] 杨军, 咸迪, 唐世浩. 2018. 风云系列气象卫星最新进展及应用. 卫星应用, 83: 8–14. Google Scholar

[159] 杨平, 蔡启铭, 徐宝祥. 1989. 求解非球形大粒子光散射问题的一种简明数值计算方法. 高原气象, 8: 291–300. Google Scholar

[160] 杨平, 蔡启铭. 1990. 椭球和圆柱形大粒子的光散射相矩阵. 大气科学, 14: 342–353. Google Scholar

[161] 殷达中, 李宗恺. 1993. 一个远距离输送-化学转化模式及其在酸雨研究中的应用. 环境科学学报, 13: 11–21. Google Scholar

[162] 于洪彬, 蒋维楣. 1994. 辐射熏烟浓度预测研究. 环境科学学报, 14: 191–197. Google Scholar

[163] 袁萍, 刘欣生, 张义军, 郄秀书, 张广庶, 王怀斌. 2004. 高原地区云对地闪电首次回击的光谱研究. 地球物理学报, 47: 42–46. Google Scholar

[164] 袁招洪, 张培昌, 顾松山. 1993. 一种数字化天气雷达回波原始资料的数据压缩方法. 南京气象学院学报, 16: 432–438. Google Scholar

[165] 袁箴, 蒋本汤, 任丽新, 周诗健, 郑达洲. 1965. 强电场探空仪及雷雨云电场探测结果的分析. 气象学报, 35: 440–448. Google Scholar

[166] 曾庆存. 1974. 大气红外遥测原理. 北京: 科学出版社. Google Scholar

[167] 张丙辰, 杨国祥, 章震越, 李建辉. 1986. 华东中尺度天气试验概述. 气象, 12: 2–5. Google Scholar

[168] 张峰, 张华, 沈钟平, 卫晓东. 2011. 一种处理漫射因子的新方法. 物理学报, 60: 010702. Google Scholar

[169] 张广庶, 李亚珺, 王彦辉, 张彤, 武斌, 刘妍秀. 2015. 闪电VHF辐射源三维定位网络测量精度的实验研究. 中国科学: 地球科学, 45: 1537–1552. Google Scholar

[170] 张华. 1999. 非均匀路径相关K-分布方法的研究. 博士学位论文. 北京: 中国科学院大气物理研究所, 中国科学院大气物理研究所. Google Scholar

[171] 张华. 2015. 大气吸收辐射研究. 北京: 气象出版社. Google Scholar

[172] 张华. 2016. BCC_RAD大气辐射传输模式. 北京: 气象出版社. Google Scholar

[173] 张华, 卢鹏. 2014. 多层四流球谐函数算法的构建及在大气辐射传输模式中的应用. 气象学报. 72: 1257–1268. Google Scholar

[174] 张华, 石广玉, 刘毅. 2005. 两种逐线积分辐射模式大气吸收的比较研究. 大气科学, 29: 581–593. Google Scholar

[175] 张华, 石广玉, 刘毅. 2007. 线翼截断方式对大气辐射计算的影响. 气象学报, 65: 968–975. Google Scholar

[176] 张华, 石广玉. 2000. 一种快速高效的逐线积分大气吸收计算方法. 大气科学, 24: 111–121. Google Scholar

[177] 张立功, 王汝忠, 黄小明, 王小伟. 2002. L波段测风雷达-电子探空仪系统简介. 甘肃气象, 20: 30–32. Google Scholar

[178] 张美根, 胡非, 邹捍, 洪钟祥, 赵翼俊, 高志球. 2008. 大气边界层物理与大气环境过程研究进展. 大气科学, 32: 923–934. Google Scholar

[179] 张培昌, 胡方超, 王振会. 2013. 双线偏振雷达探测小椭球粒子群的雷达气象方程. 热带气象学报, 29: 505–510. Google Scholar

[180] 张培昌, 李晓正, 顾松山. 1989. 天气雷达组网拼图的思维同化方法. 南京气象学院学报, 12: 22–28. Google Scholar

[181] 张培昌, 王振会, 胡方超. 2012. 双/多基地天气雷达探测小椭球粒子群的雷达气象方程. 气象学报, 70: 867–874. Google Scholar

[182] 张强, 黄荣辉, 王胜, 卫国安, 曹晓彦, 侯旭宏, 吕世华, 胡泽勇, 马耀明, 韦志刚, 聂彦将, 高洪春, 高红梅, 阎宇平. 2005. 西北干旱区陆-气相互作用试验(NWC-ALIEX)及其研究进展. 地球科学进展, 20: 427–441. Google Scholar

[183] 张强, 王胜, 张杰, 王润元, 刘宏宜, 李岩瑛. 2009. 干旱区陆面过程和大气边界层研究进展. 地球科学进展, 24: 1185–1194. Google Scholar

[184] 张沈寿, 魏鸣, 赖巧珍. 2017. 两次火情的新一代天气雷达回波特征分析. 气象科学, 37: 359–367. Google Scholar

[185] 张文建. 2001. “风云”系列气象卫星的发展现状及其展望. 上海航天, 18: 8–14. Google Scholar

[186] 张义军, 吕伟涛, 陈绍东, 郑栋, 张阳, 颜旭, 陈绿文, 董万胜, 但建茹, 潘汉波. 2016. 广东野外雷电综合观测试验十年进展. 气象学报. 74: 655–671. Google Scholar

[187] 张义军, 言穆弘, 孙安平, 郭凤霞. 2009. 雷暴电学. 北京: 气象出版社. Google Scholar

[188] 张义军, 杨少杰, 吕伟涛, 郑栋, 董万胜, 李斌, 陈绍东, 张阳, 陈绿文. 2012. 2006~2011年广州人工触发闪电观测试验和应用. 应用气象学报, 23: 513–522. Google Scholar

[189] 张玉存, 王卫平. 2001. 二十世纪末气象仪器的现状与发展. 气象水文海洋仪器, 3: 1–9. Google Scholar

[190] 张志强, 刘黎平. 2011. S波段相控阵天气雷达与新一代天气雷达探测云回波强度及结构误差的模拟分析. 气象学报, 69: 729–735. Google Scholar

[191] 张志清, 陆风, 方翔, 唐世浩, 张晓虎, 许映龙, 韩威, 聂肃平, 申彦波, 周毓泉. 2017. FY_4卫星应用和发展. 上海航天, 34: 8–19. Google Scholar

[192] 章文星, 吕达仁. 2012. 地基热红外云高观测与云雷达及激光云高仪的相互对比. 大气科学, 36: 657–672. Google Scholar

[193] 赵高祥, B.Rockel, E.Raschke. 1987. 大气中红外辐射传输的参数化模式. 科学通报, 32: 1479–1482. Google Scholar

[194] 赵高祥, 汪宏七. 1994. 云和辐射──(II)环流模式中的云和云辐射参数化. 大气科学, 18: 933–958. Google Scholar

[195] 赵平, 李跃清, 郭学良, 徐祥德, 刘屹岷, 唐世浩, 肖文名, 师春香, 马耀明, 余兴, 刘辉志, 假拉, 谌芸, 柳艳菊, 李建, 罗达标, 曹云昌, 郑向东, 陈军明, 肖安, 远芳, 陈东辉, 潘旸, 胡志群, 张胜军, 董立新, 胡菊旸, 韩帅, 周秀骥. 2018. 青藏高原地气耦合系统及其天气气候效应: 第三次青藏高原大气科学试验. 气象学报, 76: 833–860. Google Scholar

[196] 赵世军, 高太长, 刘涛, 孙学金. 2012. 基于北斗一号的高空风探测方法研究. 气象科技, 40: 170–174. Google Scholar

[197] 赵燕曾, 谢威光, 陈锡明. 1964. 云滴电谱仪. 气象学报, 34: 531–538. Google Scholar

[198] 赵柏林, 丁荣良. 1963. 雨层云人工增雨的可能性(一)——非封闭系统的冰水转化问题. 气象学报, 33: 382–391. Google Scholar

[199] 郑国光. 2000. 大气探测系统设计和工程建设. 中国工程科学, 2: 21–26. Google Scholar

[200] 周海光, 张沛源. 2002. 笛卡儿坐标系的双多普勒天气雷达三维风场反演技术. 气象学报, 60: 585–593. Google Scholar

[201] 周秀骥, 李维亮. 1997. 中国地区大气臭氧变化及其对气候环境的影响——国家自然科学重大基金项目. Annual Report of CAMS: 9–12. Google Scholar

[202] 周秀骥, 吕达仁, 黄润恒. 1982. 大气微波辐射及遥感原理. 北京: 科学出版社. Google Scholar

[203] 周秀骥, 秦仁忠. 1964. 带电水滴破碎临界电场的一个理论分析. 气象学报, 34: 103–110. Google Scholar

[204] 周秀骥. 1963. 暖云降水微观物理机制的统计理论. 气象学报, 33: 97–107. Google Scholar

[205] 周秀骥. 1979. 大气遥感研究的进展. 大气科学, 3: 203–209. Google Scholar

[206] 朱彦良, 陈洪滨, 凌超, 王勇, 孙宝来, 刘玉盛, 杨智强. 2016. 边界层微型火箭气象探空系统研制与应用. 气象与环境科学, 39: 102–107. Google Scholar

[207] 朱珍华, 石可昭, 黄美元. 1965. 南岳锋面云系和降水(1962年4~5月)的微结构特征. 见: 顾震潮, 等著. 我国云雾降水微物理特征的研究. 北京: 科学出版社. 98. Google Scholar

[208] Bi J R, Huang J P, Holben B, Zhang G L. Comparison of key absorption and optical properties between pure and transported anthropogenic dust over East and Central Asia. Atmos Chem Phys, 2016, 16: 15501-15516 CrossRef Google Scholar

[209] Bi L, Lin W S, Liu D, Zhang K J. Assessing the depolarization capabilities of nonspherical particles in a super-ellipsoidal shape space. Opt Express, 2018a, 26: 1726-1742 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[210] Bi L, Lin W S, Wang Z, Tang X Y, Zhang X Y, Yi B Q. Optical Modeling of Sea Salt Aerosols: The effects of nonsphericity and inhomogeneity. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2018b, 123: 543-558 CrossRef Google Scholar

[211] Bi L, Xu F, Gouesbet G. Depolarization of nearly spherical particles: The Debye series approach. Phys Rev A, 2018c, 98: 053809 CrossRef Google Scholar

[212] Bi L, Yang P. Accurate simulation of the optical properties of atmospheric ice crystals with the invariant imbedding T-matrix method. J Quant Spectrosc Ra, 2014, 138: 17-35 CrossRef Google Scholar

[213] Cai W, Hui J, Wang C, Zheng Y, Zhang X, Zhang Q, Gong P. The Lancet Countdown on PM2.5 pollution-related health impacts of China’s projected carbon dioxide mitigation in the electric power generation sector under the Paris Agreement: A modelling study. Lancet Planet Health, 2018, 2: e151-e161 CrossRef Google Scholar

[214] Chang Y P, Merer A J, Chang H H, Jhang L J, Chao W, Lin J J M. High resolution quantum cascade laser spectroscopy of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, between 1273 cm−1 and 1290 cm−1. J Chem Phys, 2017, 146: 244302 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[215] Che H, Zhang X Y, Xia X, Goloub P, Holben B, Zhao H, Wang Y, Zhang X C, Wang H, Blarel L, Damiri B, Zhang R, Deng X, Ma Y, Wang T, Geng F, Qi B, Zhu J, Yu J, Chen Q, Shi G. Ground-based aerosol climatology of China: Aerosol optical depths from the China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET) 2002–2013. Atmos Chem Phys, 2015, 15: 7619-7652 CrossRef Google Scholar

[216] Chen B Y, Mu M, Qin X H. The impact of assimilating dropwindsonde data deployed at different sites on typhoon track forecasts. Mon Weather Rev, 2013, 141: 2669-2682 CrossRef Google Scholar

[217] Chen B, Wang J, Gong D. Raindrop size distribution in a midlatitude continental squall line measured by Thies optical disdrometers over East China. J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 2016, 55: 621-634 CrossRef Google Scholar

[218] Chen H B, Li J, Xuan Y J, Huang X S, Zhu W F, Zhu K P, Shao W Z. First rocketsonde launched from an unmanned semi-submersible vehicle. Adv Atmos Sci, 2019, 36: 339-345 CrossRef Google Scholar

[219] Chen J, Wu X, Yin Y, Huang Q, Xiao H. Characteristics of cloud systems over the Tibetan Plateau and East China during boreal summer. J Clim, 2017, 30: 3117-3137 CrossRef Google Scholar

[220] Chen Q, Koren I, Altaratz O, Heiblum R H, Dagan G, Pinto L. How do changes in warm-phase microphysics affect deep convective clouds?. Atmos Chem Phys, 2017, 17: 9585-9598 CrossRef Google Scholar

[221] Chen R J, Yin P, Meng X, Liu C, Wang L J, Xu X H, Ross J A, Tse L A, Zhao Z H, Kan H D, Zhou M G. Fine particulate air pollution and daily mortality. A nationwide analysis in 272 Chinese cities. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2017, 196: 73-81 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[222] Cheng T H, Wu Y, Chen H. Effects of morphology on the radiative properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols with different aging status. Opt Express, 2014, 22: 15904-15917 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[223] Deng X, Xue H, Meng Z. The effect of ice nuclei on a deep convective cloud in South China. Atmos Res, 2018, 206: 1-12 CrossRef Google Scholar

[224] Dong C H, Yang J, Zhang W J, Yang Z D, Lu N M, Shi J M, Zhang P, Liu Y J, Cai B. An overview of a new Chinese weather satellite FY-3A. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 2009, 90: 1531-1544 CrossRef Google Scholar

[225] Du C, Kong L, Zhanzakova A, Tong S, Yang X, Wang L, Fu H, Cheng T, Chen J, Zhang S. Impact of heterogeneous uptake of nitrogen dioxide on the conversion of acetaldehyde on gamma-alumina in the absence and presence of simulated solar irradiation. Atmos Environ, 2018, 187: 282-291 CrossRef Google Scholar

[226] Du L, Xu Y, Ge M, Jia L, Yao L, Wang W. Rate constant of the gas phase reaction of dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3) with ozone. Chem Phys Lett, 2007b, 436: 36-40 CrossRef Google Scholar

[227] Du L, Xu Y, Ge M, Jia L. Rate constant for the reaction of ozone with diethyl sulfide. Atmos Environ, 2007a, 41: 7434-7439 CrossRef Google Scholar

[228] Duan M Z, Min Q L, Lu D R. A polarized radiative transfer model based on successive order of scattering. Adv Atmos Sci, 2010, 27: 891-900 CrossRef Google Scholar

[229] Fan X P, Zhang Y J, Zheng D, Zhang Y, Lyu W T, Liu H Y, Xu L T. 2018. A new method of three-dimensional location for low-frequency electric field detection array. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 123: 8792–8812. Google Scholar

[230] Feng Z Z, Büker P, Pleijel H, Emberson L, Karlsson P E, Uddling J. A unifying explanation for variation in ozone sensitivity among woody plants. Glob Change Biol, 2018, 24: 78-84 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[231] Feng Z Z, Sun J S, Wan W X, Hu E Z, Calatayud V. Evidence of widespread ozone-induced visible injury on plants in Beijing, China. Environ Pollut, 2014, 193: 296-301 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[232] Feng Z Z, Tang H Y, Uddling J, Pleijel H, Kobayashi K, Zhu J G, Oue H, Guo W S. A stomatal ozone flux-response relationship to assess ozone-induced yield loss of winter wheat in subtropical China. Environ Pollut, 2012, 164: 16-23 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[233] Fu Y, Pan X, Xian T, Liu G, Zhong L, Liu Q, Li R, Wang Y, Ma M. Precipitation characteristics over the steep slope of the Himalayas in rainy season observed by TRMM PR and VIRS. Clim Dyn, 2018, 51: 1971-1989 CrossRef Google Scholar

[234] Gai Y, Ge M, Wang W. Kinetic studies of O3 reactions with 3-bromopropene and 3-iodopropene in the temperature range 288–328 K. Atmos Environ, 2009, 43: 3467-3471 CrossRef Google Scholar

[235] Gai Y, Wang W, Ge M, Kjaergaard H G, Jørgensen S, Du L. Methyl chavicol reactions with ozone, OH and NO3 radicals: Rate constants and gas-phase products. Atmos Environ, 2013, 77: 696-702 CrossRef Google Scholar

[236] Gan J, Lu W, Li Q, Zhang Z, Yang J, Ma Y, Yao W. Cloud type classification of total-sky images using Duplex norm-bounded sparse coding. IEEE J Sel Top Appl Earth Observ Remote Sens, 2017, 10: 3360-3372 CrossRef Google Scholar

[237] Ge H X, Zhang H S, Zhang H, Cai X H, Song Y, Kang L. The characteristics of methane flux from an irrigated rice farm in East China measured using the eddy covariance method. Agric For Meteorol, 2018, 249: 228-238 CrossRef Google Scholar

[238] Ge J, Zheng C, Xie H, Xin Y, Huang J, Fu Q. Midlatitude cirrus clouds at the SACOL site: Macrophysical properties and large-scale atmospheric states. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2018, 123: 2256-2271 CrossRef Google Scholar

[239] Guo J, Deng M, Lee S S, Wang F, Li Z, Zhai P, Liu H, Lv W, Yao W, Li X. Delaying precipitation and lightning by air pollution over the Pearl River Delta. Part I: Observational analyses. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2016, 121: 6472-6488 CrossRef Google Scholar

[240] Guo S, Hu M, Guo Q, Zhang X, Zheng M, Zheng J, Chang C C, Schauer J J, Zhang R. Primary sources and secondary formation of organic aerosols in Beijing, China. Environ Sci Technol, 2012, 46: 9846-9853 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[241] Guo X, Lü D R, Lü Y. A simple but accurate ultraviolet limb-scan spherically-layered radiative-transfer-model based on single-scattering physics. Adv Atmos Sci, 2007, 24: 619-630 CrossRef Google Scholar

[242] Han J, Chu Z G, Wang Z H, Xu D, Li N, Kou L L, Xu F, Zhu Y Q. The establishment of optimal ground-based radar datasets by comparison and correlation analyses with space-borne radar data. Met Apps, 2018, 25: 161-170 CrossRef Google Scholar

[243] Han Y, Gao P, Huang J, Zhang T, Zhuang J, Hu M, Wu Y. Ground-based synchronous optical instrument for measuring atmospheric visibility and turbulence intensity: Theories, design and experiments. Opt Express, 2018, 26: 6833-6850 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[244] Hao L, Wang Z, Fang L, Zhang W, Wang W, Li C, Sheng L. Characterization of products from photooxidation of toluene. J Environ Sci, 2006, 18: 903-909 CrossRef Google Scholar

[245] He K, Yang F, Ma Y, Zhang Q, Yao X, Chan C K, Cadle S, Chan T, Mulawa P. The characteristics of PM2.5 in Beijing, China. Atmos Environ, 2001, 35: 4959-4970 CrossRef Google Scholar

[246] Hou S Q, Tong S R, Ge M F, An J L. Comparison of atmospheric nitrous acid during severe haze and clean periods in Beijing, China. Atmos Environ, 2016, 124: 199-206 CrossRef Google Scholar

[247] Hu E Z, Gao F, Xin Y, Jia H X, Li K H, Hu J J, Feng Z Z. Concentration- and flux-based ozone dose-response relationships for five poplar clones grown in North China. Environ Pollut, 2015, 207: 21-30 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[248] Hu S, Gao T C, Li H, Liu L, Chen M, Yang B. 2018. Light-scattering model for aerosol particles with irregular shapes and inhomogeneous compositions using a parallelized pseudo-spectral time-domain technique. Chin Phys B, 27: 054215. Google Scholar

[249] Huang J P, Zhang W, Zuo J Q, Bi J R, Shi J S, Wang X, Chang Z L, Huang Z W, Yang S, Zhang B D, Wang G Y, Feng G H, Yuan J Y, Zhang L, Zuo H C, Wang S G, Fu C B, Chou J F. An overview of the semi-arid climate and environment research observatory over the Loess Plateau. Adv Atmos Sci, 2008, 25: 906-921 CrossRef Google Scholar

[250] Huang K Y, Yang X L, Liang F C, Liu F C, Li J X, Xiao Q Y, Chen J C, Liu X Q, Cao J, Shen C, Yu L, Lu F H, Wu X P, Zhao L C, Wu X G, Li Y, Hu D S, Huang J F, Liu Y, Lu X F, Gu D F. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and hypertension incidence in China. Hypertension, 2019, 73: 1195-1201 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[251] Huang L, Zhang Q, Qiu S, Shi L, Wang J, Gao C. Development of a high-speed optical system for lightning flash observation. Measurement, 2019, 131: 85-91 CrossRef Google Scholar

[252] Huang R J, Zhang Y, Bozzetti C, Ho K F, Cao J J, Han Y, Daellenbach K R, Slowik J G, Platt S M, Canonaco F, Zotter P, Wolf R, Pieber S M, Bruns E A, Crippa M, Ciarelli G, Piazzalunga A, Schwikowski M, Abbaszade G, Schnelle-Kreis J, Zimmermann R, An Z, Szidat S, Baltensperger U, El Haddad I, Prévôt A S H. High secondary aerosol contribution to particulate pollution during haze events in China. Nature, 2014, 514: 218-222 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[253] Huang W, Wang G F, Lu S E, Kipen H, Wang Y D, Hu M, Lin W W, Rich D, Ohman-Strickland P, Diehl S R, Zhu P, Tong J, Gong J C, Zhu T, Zhang J F. Inflammatory and oxidative stress responses of healthy young adults to changes in air quality during the Beijing Olympics. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2012, 186: 1150-1159 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[254] Huo J, Lu D. Comparison of cloud cover from all-sky imager and meteorological observer. J Atmos Ocean Technol, 2012, 29: 1093-1101 CrossRef Google Scholar

[255] Jiang J, Chen M, Kuang C, Attoui M, McMurry P H. Electrical mobility spectrometer using a diethylene glycol condensation particle counter for measurement of aerosol size distributions down to 1 nm. Aerosol Sci Tech, 2011, 45: 510-521 CrossRef Google Scholar

[256] Jiang L J, Feng Z Z, Dai L L, Shang B, Paoletti E. Large variability in ambient ozone sensitivity across 19 ethylenediurea-treated Chinese cultivars of soybean is driven by total ascorbate. J Environ Sci, 2018, 64: 10-22 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[257] Jin C, Liu C, Yin Y, Bi L, Nousiainen T. Modeling the scattering phase matrix of red clays. Opt Lett, 2016, 41: 4879-4882 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[258] Jing X Q, Geerts B, Wang Y G, Liu C H. Ambient factors controlling the wintertime precipitation distribution across mountain ranges in the interior western United States. Part II: Changes in orographic precipitation distribution in a Pseudo–global warming simulation. J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 2019, 58: 695-715 CrossRef Google Scholar

[259] Jones L, Provins A, Holland M, Mills G, Hayes F, Emmett B, Hall J, Sheppard L, Smith R, Sutton M, Hicks K, Ashmore M, Haines-Young R, Harper-Simmonds L. A review and application of the evidence for nitrogen impacts on ecosystem services. EcoSyst Services, 2014, 7: 76-88 CrossRef Google Scholar

[260] Kang P, Wang J, Liu G L, Sun Y R, Zhou Z Y, Liu A W, Hu S M. Line intensities of the 30011e–00001e band of 12C16O2 by laser-locked cavity ring-down spectroscopy. J Quant Spectrosc Ra, 2018, 207: 1-7 CrossRef Google Scholar

[261] Kleffmann J. Daytime sources of nitrous acid (HONO) in the atmospheric boundary layer. Chemphyschem, 2007, 8: 1137-1144 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[262] Li H, Zhong J, Vehkamäki H, Kurtén T, Wang W, Ge M, Zhang S, Li Z, Zhang X, Francisco J S, Zeng X C. Self-Catalytic Reaction of SO3 and NH3 To Produce Sulfamic Acid and Its Implication to Atmospheric Particle Formation. J Am Chem Soc, 2018, 140: 11020-11028 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[263] Li J W, Han Z W. Aerosol vertical distribution over east China from RIEMS-Chem simulation in comparison with CALIPSO measurements. Atmos Environ, 2016, 143: 177-189 CrossRef Google Scholar

[264] Li K, Jacob D J, Liao H, Shen L, Zhang Q, Bates K H. Anthropogenic drivers of 2013–2017 trends in summer surface ozone in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2019, 116: 422-427 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[265] Li K, Li J, Liggio J, Wang W, Ge M, Liu Q, Guo Y, Tong S, Li J, Peng C, Jing B, Wang D, Fu P. Enhanced light scattering of secondary organic aerosols by multiphase reactions. Environ Sci Technol, 2017, 51: 1285-1292 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[266] Li L, Duan Z, Li H, Zhu C, Henkelman G, Francisco J S, Zeng X C. Formation of HONO from the NH3-promoted hydrolysis of NO2 dimers in the atmosphere. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2018, 115: 7236-7241 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[267] Li M, Liu H, Geng G, Hong C, Liu F, Song Y, Tong D, Zheng B, Cui H, Man H, Zhang Q, He K. Anthropogenic emission inventories in China: A review. Natl Sci Rev, 2017, 4: 834-866 CrossRef Google Scholar

[268] Li M, Zhang D, Li C T, Mulvaney K M, Selin N E, Karplus V J. Air quality co-benefits of carbon pricing in China. Nat Clim Change, 2018, 8: 398-403 CrossRef Google Scholar

[269] Li N, Wang Z H, Xu F, Chu Z G, Zhu Y Q, Han J. The assessment of ground-based weather radar data by comparison with TRMM PR. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett, 2017, 14: 72-76 CrossRef Google Scholar

[270] Li P, De Marco A, Feng Z, Anav A, Zhou D, Paoletti E. Nationwide ground-level ozone measurements in China suggest serious risks to forests. Environ Pollut, 2018, 237: 803-813 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[271] Li R, Dong X, Guo J, Fu Y, Zhao C, Wang Y, Min Q. The implications of dust ice nuclei effect on cloud top temperature in a complex mesoscale convective system. Sci Rep, 2017, 7: 13826 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[272] Li T T, Zhang Y, Wang J N, Xu D D, Yin Z X, Chen H S, Lv Y B, Luo J S, Zeng Y, Liu Y, Kinney P L, Shi X M. All-cause mortality risk associated with long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 in China: A cohort study. Lancet Public Health, 2018, 3: e470-e477 CrossRef Google Scholar

[273] Li X, Hu F, Liu G, Hong Z. 2001. Multi-scale fractal characteristics of atmospheric boundary-layer turbulence. Adv Atmos Sci, 18: 787–792. Google Scholar

[274] Li Y J, Zhang G S, Wen J, Wang D H, Wang Y H, Zhang T, Fan X P, Wu B. Electrical structure of a Qinghai-Tibet Plateau thunderstorm based on three-dimensional lightning mapping. Atmos Res, 2013, 134: 137-149 CrossRef Google Scholar

[275] Li Y, Qiu S, Shi L, Wang T, Zhang Q, Lei Q, Sun Z. Observed variation of three-dimensional return stroke speeds along the channel in rocket-triggered lightning. Geophys Res Lett, 2018, 45: 12569-12575 CrossRef Google Scholar

[276] Li Z Q, Xu H, Li K T, Li D H, Xie Y S, Li L, Zhang Y, Gu X F, Zhao W, Tian Q J, Deng R R, Su X L, Huang B, Qiao Y L, Cui W Y, Hu Y, Gong C L, Wang Y Q, Wang X F, Wang J P, Du W B, Pan Z Q, Li Z Z, Bu D. Comprehensive study of optical, physical, chemical, and radiative properties of total columnar atmospheric aerosols over China an overview of Sun-sky Radiometer Observation Network (SONET) Measurements. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 2018, 99: 739-755 CrossRef Google Scholar

[277] Li Z, Hu R, Xie P, Chen H, Wu S, Wang F, Wang Y, Ling L, Liu J, Liu W. Development of a portable cavity ring down spectroscopy instrument for simultaneous, in situ measurement of NO3 and N2O5. Opt Express, 2018, 26: A433 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[278] Liang P, Mu Y J, Daële V, Mellouki A. Kinetic studies of Cl reactions with 3-buten-1-ol and 2-buten-1-ol over the temperature range 298–363 K. Chem Phys Lett, 2011, 502: 154-158 CrossRef Google Scholar

[279] Liao M, Healy S, Zhang P. Processing and quality control of FY-3C GNOS data used in numerical weather prediction applications. Atmos Meas Tech, 2019, 12: 2679-2692 CrossRef Google Scholar

[280] Lin J, Pan D, Davis S J, Zhang Q, He K, Wang C, Streets D G, Wuebbles D J, Guan D. China’s international trade and air pollution in the United States. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2014, 111: 1736-1741 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[281] Lin J, Tong D, Davis S, Ni R, Tan X, Pan D, Zhao H, Lu Z, Streets D, Feng T, Zhang Q, Yan Y, Hu Y, Li J, Liu Z, Jiang X, Geng G, He K, Huang Y, Guan D. Global climate forcing of aerosols embodied in international trade. Nat Geosci, 2016, 9: 790-794 CrossRef Google Scholar

[282] Lin W, Bi L, Dubovik O. Assessing superspheroids in modeling the scattering matrices of dust aerosols. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2018, 123: 13917-13943 CrossRef Google Scholar

[283] Lin W S, Bi L, Liu D, Zhang K J. Use of Debye’s series to determine the optimal edge-effect terms for computing the extinction efficiencies of spheroids. Opt Express, 2017, 25: 20298-20312 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[284] Liu A W, Hu C L, Wang J, Perevalov V I, Hu S M. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of 15N enriched N2O near 1.56 µm. J Quant Spectrosc Ra, 2019, 232: 1-9 CrossRef Google Scholar

[285] Liu C, Chung C E, Yin Y, Schnaiter M. The absorption Ångström exponent of black carbon: From numerical aspects. Atmos Chem Phys, 2018, 18: 6259-6273 CrossRef Google Scholar

[286] Liu C, Li J, Yin Y, Zhu B, Feng Q. Optical properties of black carbon aggregates with non-absorptive coating. J Quant Spectrosc Ra, 2017, 187: 443-452 CrossRef Google Scholar

[287] Liu C, Ma Q, Liu Y, Ma J, He H. Synergistic reaction between SO2 and NO2 on mineraloxides: A potential formation pathway of sulfate aerosol. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2012, 14: 1668-1676 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[288] Liu C, Yin Y. Inherent optical properties of pollen particles: A case study for the morning glory pollen. Opt Express, 2016, 24: A104 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[289] Liu D Y, Niu S J, Yang J, Zhao L J, Lü J J, Lu C S. Summary of a 4-year fog field study in northern Nanjing, Part 1: Fog boundary layer. Pure Appl Geophys, 2011, 169: 809-819 CrossRef Google Scholar

[290] Liu F, Zhang Q, van der A R J, Zheng B, Tong D, Yan L, Zheng Y, He K. Recent reduction in NOx emissions over China: Synthesis of satellite observations and emission inventories. Environ Res Lett, 2016, 11: 114002 CrossRef Google Scholar

[291] Liu H, Dong W, Wu T, Zheng D, Zhang Y. Observation of compact intracloud discharges using VHF broadband interferometers. J Geophys Res, 2012, 117, doi: 10.1029/2011JD016185 CrossRef Google Scholar

[292] Liu L, Sun X, Chen F, Zhao S, Gao T. Cloud classification based on structure features of infrared images. J Atmos Ocean Technol, 2011, 28: 410-417 CrossRef Google Scholar

[293] Liu L, Sun X, Gao T, Zhao S. Comparison of cloud properties from ground-based infrared cloud measurement and visual observations. J Atmos Ocean Technol, 2013, 30: 1171-1179 CrossRef Google Scholar

[294] Liu M, Huang X, Song Y, Tang J, Cao J, Zhang X, Zhang Q, Wang S, Xu T, Kang L, Cai X, Zhang H, Yang F, Wang H, Yu J Z, Lau A K H, He L, Huang X, Duan L, Ding A, Xue L, Gao J, Liu B, Zhu T. Ammonia emission control in China would mitigate haze pollution and nitrogen deposition, but worsen acid rain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2019, 116: 7760-7765 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[295] Liu T, Wang X, Deng W, Hu Q, Ding X, Zhang Y, He Q, Zhang Z, Lü S, Bi X, Chen J, Yu J. Secondary organic aerosol formation from photochemical aging of light-duty gasoline vehicle exhausts in a smog chamber. Atmos Chem Phys, 2015, 15: 9049-9062 CrossRef Google Scholar

[296] Liu X C, Gao T C, Liu L. A video precipitation sensor for imaging and velocimetry of hydrometeors. Atmos Meas Tech, 2014, 7: 2037-2046 CrossRef Google Scholar

[297] Liu X G, Li J, Qu Y, Han T, Hou L, Gu J, Chen C, Yang Y, Liu X, Yang T, Zhang Y, Tian H, Hu M. Formation and evolution mechanism of regional haze: A case study in the megacity Beijing, China. Atmos Chem Phys, 2013, 13: 4501-4514 CrossRef Google Scholar

[298] Liu X, Ye Z, Shao X, Wang C, Yan M, Guo C. 1989. Intracloud lighting discharges in the lower part of thundercloud. Acta Meteorol Sin, 3: 212–219. Google Scholar

[299] Liu Y, Laiguang Y, Weinong Y, Feng L. On the size distribution of cloud droplets. Atmos Res, 1995, 35: 201-216 CrossRef Google Scholar

[300] Liu Y, Liggio J, Staebler R, Li S M. Reactive uptake of ammonia to secondary organic aerosols: Kinetics of organonitrogen formation. Atmos Chem Phys, 2015, 15: 13569-13584 CrossRef Google Scholar

[301] Liu Y, Lu K, Li X, Dong H, Tan Z, Wang H, Zou Q, Wu Y, Zeng L, Hu M, Min K E, Kecorius S, Wiedensohler A, Zhang Y. A comprehensive model test of the HONO sources constrained to field measurements at rural North China Plain. Environ Sci Technol, 2019, 53: 3517-3525 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[302] Lu C, Liu Y, Niu S, Krueger S, Wagner T. Exploring parameterization for turbulent entrainment-mixing processes in clouds. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2013, 118: 185-194 CrossRef Google Scholar

[303] Lu D, Pan W, Wang Y. Atmospheric profiling synthetic observation system in Tibet. Adv Atmos Sci, 2018, 35: 264-267 CrossRef Google Scholar

[304] Lu G, Jiang R, Qie X, Zhang H, Sun Z, Liu M, Wang Z, Liu K. Burst of intracloud current pulses during the initial continuous current in a rocket-triggered lightning flash. Geophys Res Lett, 2014, 41: 9174-9181 CrossRef Google Scholar

[305] Lu K D, Rohrer F, Holland F, Fuchs H, Bohn B, Brauers T, Chang C C, Häseler R, Hu M, Kita K, Kondo Y, Li X, Lou S R, Nehr S, Shao M, Zeng L M, Wahner A, Zhang Y H, Hofzumahaus A. Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: A missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere. Atmos Chem Phys, 2012, 12: 1541-1569 CrossRef Google Scholar

[306] Lu Q F, Bell W, Bauer P, Bormann N, Peubey C. An evaluation of FY-3A satellite data for numerical weather prediction. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 2011, 137: 1298-1311 CrossRef Google Scholar

[307] Lu W, Chen L, Ma Y, Rakov V A, Gao Y, Zhang Y, Yin Q, Zhang Y. Lightning attachment process involving connection of the downward negative leader to the lateral surface of the upward connecting leader. Geophys Res Lett, 2013, 40: 5531-5535 CrossRef Google Scholar

[308] Lu Z, Hao J, Takekawa H, Hu L, Li J. Effect of high concentrations of inorganic seed aerosols on secondary organic aerosol formation in the m-xylene/NOx photooxidation system. Atmos Environ, 2009, 43: 897-904 CrossRef Google Scholar

[309] Ma J, Guo X, Zhao C, Zhang Y, Hu Z. Recent progress in cloud physics research in China. Adv Atmos Sci, 2007, 24: 1121-1137 CrossRef Google Scholar

[310] Ma N, Zhao C S, Müller T, Cheng Y F, Liu P F, Deng Z Z, Xu W Y, Ran L, Nekat B, van Pinxteren D, Gnauk T, Müller K, Herrmann H, Yan P, Zhou X J, Wiedensohler A. A new method to determine the mixing state of light absorbing carbonaceous using the measured aerosol optical properties and number size distributions. Atmos Chem Phys, 2012, 12: 2381-2397 CrossRef Google Scholar

[311] Mu M, Duan W, Chen D, Yu W. Target observations for improving initialization of high-impact ocean-atmospheric environmental events forecasting. Nat Sci Rev, 2015, 2: 226-236 CrossRef Google Scholar

[312] Mu M, Duan W S, Wang B. Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation and its applications. Nonlin Processes Geophys, 2003, 10: 493-501 CrossRef Google Scholar

[313] Nash J, Oakley T, Vömel H, Wei L. 2011. WMO intercomparison of high quality radiosonde systems, Instruments and Observing Methods. WMO, Geneva. Google Scholar

[314] Niu Y, Chen R J, Xia Y J, Cai J, Lin Z J, Liu C, Chen C, Peng L, Zhao Z H, Zhou W H, Chen J M, Kan H D. Personal ozone exposure and respiratory inflammatory response: The role of DNA methylation in the arginase-nitric oxide synthase pathway. Environ Sci Technol, 2018, 52: 8785-8791 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[315] Peng J F, Hu M, Guo S, Du Z F, Zheng J, Shang D J, Zamora M L, Zeng L M, Shao M, Wu Y S, Zheng J, Wang Y, Glen C R, Collins D R, Molina M J, Zhang R Y. Markedly enhanced absorption and direct radiative forcing of black carbon under polluted urban environments. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2016, 113: 4266-4271 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[316] Peng J, Hu M, Du Z, Wang Y, Zheng J, Zhang W, Yang Y, Qin Y, Zheng R, Xiao Y, Wu Y, Lu S, Wu Z, Guo S, Mao H, Shuai S. Gasoline aromatics: A critical determinant of urban secondary organic aerosol formation. Atmos Chem Phys, 2017, 17: 10743-10752 CrossRef Google Scholar

[317] Peng Y, Wang H, Li Y, Liu C, Zhao T, Zhang X, Gao Z, Jiang T, Che H, Zhang M. Evaluating the performance of two surface layer schemes for the momentum and heat exchange processes during severe haze pollution in Jing-Jin-Ji in eastern China. Atmos Chem Phys, 2018, 18: 17421-17435 CrossRef Google Scholar

[318] Qie X. Progresses in the atmospheric electricity researches in China during 2006–2010. Adv Atmos Sci, 2012, 29: 993-1005 CrossRef Google Scholar

[319] Qie X S, Zhang Y J. A Review of atmospheric electricity research in China from 2011 to 2018. Adv Atmos Sci, 2019, 36: 994-1014 CrossRef Google Scholar

[320] Qin X H, Mu M. Influence of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations sensitivity on typhoon track forecasts. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 2012, 138: 185-197 CrossRef Google Scholar

[321] Qin Y, Lin Y, Xu S, Ma H, Xie S. A DiagnosticPDF Cloud Scheme to Improve Subtropical Low Clouds in NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5). J Adv Model Earth Syst, 2018, 10: 320-341 CrossRef Google Scholar

[322] Randles C A, Kinne S, Myhre G, Schulz M, Stier P, Fischer J, Doppler L, Highwood E, Ryder C, Harris B, Huttunen J, Ma Y, Pinker R T, Mayer B, Neubauer D, Hitzenberger R, Oreopoulos L, Lee D, Pitari G, Di Genova G, Quaas J, Rose F G, Kato S, Rumbold S T, Vardavas I, Hatzianastassiou N, Matsoukas C, Yu H, Zhang F, Zhang H, Lu P. Intercomparison of shortwave radiative transfer schemes in global aerosol modeling: Results from the aerocom radiative transfer experiment. Atmos Chem Phys, 2013, 13: 2347-2379 CrossRef Google Scholar

[323] Ren Y, Zhang H S, Wei W, Wu B G, Cai X H, Song Y. Effects of turbulence structure and urbanization on the heavy haze pollution process. Atmos Chem Phys, 2019, 19: 1041-1057 CrossRef Google Scholar

[324] Shang B, Feng Z Z, Li P, Yuan X Y, Xu Y S, Calatayud V. Ozone exposure- and flux-based response relationships with photosynthesis, leaf morphology and biomass in two poplar clones. Sci Total Environ, 2017, 603-604: 185-195 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[325] Shen G, Ru M, Du W, Zhu X, Zhong Q, Chen Y, Shen H, Yun X, Meng W, Liu J, Cheng H, Hu J, Guan D, Tao S. Impacts of air pollutants from rural Chinese households under the rapid residential energy transition. Nat Commun, 2019, 10: 3405 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[326] Shi C, Sun X, Yang J, Li Z. 1996. 3D model Study on fog over complex terrain—Part I: Numerical study. J Meteor Res, 10: 493–506. Google Scholar

[327] Song Y, Shao M, Liu Y, Lu S, Kuster W, Goldan P, Xie S. Source apportionment of ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing. Environ Sci Technol, 2007, 41: 4348-4353 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[328] Sun G, Li Y, Lu J. Cloud vertical structures associated with northward advance of the East Asian summer monsoon. Atmos Res, 2019, 215: 317-325 CrossRef Google Scholar

[329] Sun J, Zhang L, Shen X, Che H, Zhang Y, Fan R, Ma Q, Yue Y, Yu X. 2016. A review of the effects of relative humidity on aerosol scattering properties. Acta Meteorol Sin, 74: 672–682. Google Scholar

[330] Sun Y, Jiang Q, Wang Z, Fu P, Li J, Yang T, Yin Y. Investigation of the sources and evolution processes of severe haze pollution in Beijing in January 2013. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2014, 119: 4380-4398 CrossRef Google Scholar

[331] Sun Y, Zhuang G, Tang A A, Wang Y, An Z. Chemical Characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 in Haze-Fog Episodes in Beijing. Environ Sci Technol, 2006, 40: 3148-3155 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[332] Tan F, Tong S, Jing B, Hou S, Liu Q, Li K, Zhang Y, Ge M. Heterogeneous reactions of NO2 with CaCO3-(NH4)2SO4 mixtures at different relative humidities. Atmos Chem Phys, 2016, 16: 8081-8093 CrossRef Google Scholar

[333] Tan Y B, Tao S C, Zhu B Y. Fine-resolution simulation of the channel structures and propagation features of intracloud lightning. Geophys Res Lett, 2006, 33: L09809 CrossRef Google Scholar

[334] Tan Y B, Zheng T X, Shi Z. Improved lightning model: Application to discuss the characteristics of upward lightning. Atmos Res, 2019, 217: 63-72 CrossRef Google Scholar

[335] Tan Z, Rohrer F, Lu K, Ma X, Bohn B, Broch S, Dong H, Fuchs H, Gkatzelis G I, Hofzumahaus A, Holland F, Li X, Liu Y, Liu Y, Novelli A, Shao M, Wang H, Wu Y, Zeng L, Hu M, Kiendler-Scharr A, Wahner A, Zhang Y. Wintertime photochemistry in Beijing: Observations of ROx radical concentrations in the North China Plain during the BEST-ONE campaign. Atmos Chem Phys, 2018, 18: 12391-12411 CrossRef Google Scholar

[336] Tang X, Li J, Dong Z. 1989. Photochemical pollution in Lanzhou, China-a case study. J Environ Sci, 1: 31–38. Google Scholar

[337] Tao S, Ru M Y, Du W, Zhu X, Zhong Q R, Li B G, Shen G F, Pan X L, Meng W J, Chen Y L, Shen H Z, Lin N, Su S, Zhuo S J, Huang T B, Xu Y, Yun X, Liu J F, Wang X L, Liu W X, Cheng H F, Zhu D Q. Quantifying the rural residential energy transition in China from 1992 to 2012 through a representative national survey. Nat Energy, 2018, 3: 567-573 CrossRef Google Scholar

[338] Tian Y H, Liu H, Zhao Z L, Xiang X, Li M, Juan J, Song J, Cao Y Y, Wang X W, Chen L B, Wei C, Hu Y H, Gao P. 2018. Association between ambient air pollution and daily hospital admissions for ischemic stroke: A nationwide time-series analysis. Plos Medicine, 15. Google Scholar

[339] Tong D, Zhang Q, Davis S J, Liu F, Zheng B, Geng G, Xue T, Li M, Hong C, Lu Z, Streets D G, Guan D, He K. Targeted emission reductions from global super-polluting power plant units. Nat Sustain, 2018, 1: 59-68 CrossRef Google Scholar

[340] Tong S, Hou S Q, Zhang Y, Chu B W, Liu Y C, He H, Zhao P S, Ge M F. Exploring the nitrous acid (HONO) formation mechanism in winter Beijing: Direct emissions and heterogeneous production in urban and suburban areas. Faraday Discuss, 2016, 189: 213-230 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[341] Wang B. A unified formulation of radiative transfer in plane-parallel atmospheres based on general decomposition of radiance. Part I: The theory. J Atmos Sci, 2017a, 74: 4139-4151 CrossRef Google Scholar

[342] Wang B. A unified formulation of radiative transfer in plane-parallel atmospheres based on general decomposition of radiance. Part II: An exemplifying application to the hemispherical harmonics method with four components. J Atmos Sci, 2017b, 74: 4153-4176 CrossRef Google Scholar

[343] Wang H, Chen J, Lu K. Development of a portable cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer for the measurement of ambient NO3 and N2O5: Experimental setup, lab characterizations, and field applications in a polluted urban environment. Atmos Meas Tech, 2017, 10: 1465-1479 CrossRef Google Scholar

[344] Wang H, Zhang Y, Mu Y. Rate constants for reactions of •OH with Several reduced sulfur compounds determined by relative rate constant method. Acta Physico-Chim Sin, 2008, 24: 945-950 CrossRef Google Scholar

[345] Wang J, Zhang X, Li D, Yang Y, Zhong J, Wang Y, Che H, Che H, Zhang Y. Interdecadal changes of summer aerosol pollution in the Yangtze River Basin of China, the relative influence of meteorological conditions and the relation to climate change. Sci Total Environ, 2018, 630: 46-52 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[346] Wang M J, Zhao K, Xue M, Zhang G F, Liu S, Wen L, Chen G. 2016. Precipitation microphysics characteristics of a Typhoon Matmo (2014) rainband after landfall over eastern China based on polarimetric radar observations. J Geophys Res, 121: 12415–12433. Google Scholar

[347] Wang N, Sun X, Chen J, Li X. Heterogeneous nucleation of trichloroethylene ozonation products in the formation of new fine particles. Sci Rep, 2017, 7: 42600 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[348] Wang S, Xing J, Chatani S, Hao J, Klimont Z, Cofala J, Amann M. Verification of anthropogenic emissions of China by satellite and ground observations. Atmos Environ, 2011a, 45: 6347-6358 CrossRef Google Scholar

[349] Wang S, Xing J, Jang C, Zhu Y, Fu J S, Hao J. Impact assessment of ammonia emissions on inorganic aerosols in East China using response surface modeling technique. Environ Sci Technol, 2011b, 45: 9293-9300 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[350] Wang S, Zhao M, Xing J, Wu Y, Zhou Y, Lei Y, He K, Fu L, Hao J. Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. Environ Sci Technol, 2010, 44: 2490-2496 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[351] Wang T J, Jiang F, Deng J J, Shen Y, Fu Q Y, Wang Q, Fu Y, Xu J H, Zhang D N. Urban air quality and regional haze weather forecast for Yangtze River Delta region. Atmos Environ, 2012, 58: 70-83 CrossRef Google Scholar

[352] Wang T J, Li S, Shen Y, Deng J J, Xie M. Investigations on direct and indirect effect of nitrate on temperature and precipitation in China using a regional climate chemistry modeling system. J Geophys Res, 2010, 115: D00K26 CrossRef Google Scholar

[353] Wang T, Shi L H, Qiu S, Sun Z, Zhang Q, Duan Y T, Liu B. Multiple-antennae observation and EMTR processing of lightning VHF radiations. IEEE Access, 2018, 6: 26558-26566 CrossRef Google Scholar

[354] Wang W G, Li K, Zhou L, Ge M F, Hou S Q, Tong S R, Mu Y J, Jia L. 2015. Evaluation and application of dual-reactor chamber for studying atmospheric oxidation processes and mechanisms. Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica, 31: 1251–1259. Google Scholar

[355] Wang X, Liu T, Bernard F, Ding X, Wen S, Zhang Y, Zhang Z, He Q, Lü S, Chen J, Saunders S, Yu J. Design and characterization of a smog chamber for studying gas-phase chemical mechanisms and aerosol formation. Atmos Meas Tech, 2014, 7: 301-313 CrossRef Google Scholar

[356] Wang Y S, Xin J Y, Li Z Q, Wang S G, Wang P C, Hao W M, Nordgren B L, Chen H B, Wang L L, Sun Y. Seasonal variations in aerosol optical properties over China. J Geophys Res, 2011, 116: D18209 CrossRef Google Scholar

[357] Wang Y, Hao J, McElroy M B, Munger J W, Ma H, Chen D, Nielsen C P. Ozone air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: Effectiveness of emission restrictions. Atmos Chem Phys, 2009, 9: 5237-5251 CrossRef Google Scholar

[358] Wang Y, Wu Z, Hu M. 2017. Hygroscopicity of atmospheric sub-micrometer particles in various environments in China. China Environ Sci, 37: 1601–1609. Google Scholar

[359] Wang Z, Cui S C, Yang J, Gao H Y, Liu C, Zhang Z B. A novel hybrid scattering order-dependent variance reduction method for Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transfer in cloudy atmosphere. J Quant Spectrosc Ra, 2017a, 189: 283-302 CrossRef Google Scholar

[360] Wang Z, Sui X, Zhang Q, Yang L, Zhao H, Tang M, Zhan Y, Zhang Z. Derivation of cloud-free-region atmospheric motion vectors from FY-2E thermal infrared imagery. Adv Atmos Sci, 2017b, 34: 272-282 CrossRef Google Scholar

[361] Wei H L, Chen X H, Rao R Z, Wang Y J, Yang P. A moderate-spectral-resolution transmittance model based on fitting the line-by-line calculation. Opt Express, 2007, 15: 8360-8370 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[362] Wei W, Zhang H S, Schmitt F G, Huang Y X, Cai X H, Song Y, Huang X, Zhang H. Investigation of turbulence behaviour in the stable boundary layer using arbitrary-order hilbert spectra. Bound-Layer Meteorol, 2017, 163: 311-326 CrossRef Google Scholar

[363] Wen J, Zhao K, Huang H, Zhou B, Yang Z, Chen G, Wang M, Wen L, Dai H, Xu L, Liu S, Zhang G, Lee W C. Evolution of microphysical structure of a subtropical squall line observed by a polarimetric radar and a disdrometer during OPACC in Eastern China. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2017, 122: 8033-8050 CrossRef Google Scholar

[364] Wuebbles D J, Brasseur G P, Rodhe H, Barrie L A, Crutzen P J, Delmas R J, Jacob D J, Kolb C, Pszenny A, Steffen W, Weiss R F. 2003. Changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere and potential impacts. in Atmospheric Chemistry in a Changing World, 1–17. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Google Scholar

[365] Xiao H, Yin Y, Jin L, Chen Q, Chen J. Simulation of aerosol effects on orographic clouds and precipitation using WRF model with a detailed bin microphysics scheme. Atmos Sci Lett, 2014, 15: 134-139 CrossRef Google Scholar

[366] Xie X, Zhang H, Liu X, Peng Y, Liu Y. Sensitivity study of cloud parameterizations with relative dispersion in CAM5.1: Impacts on aerosol indirect effects. Atmos Chem Phys, 2017, 17: 5877-5892 CrossRef Google Scholar

[367] Xin J Y, Wang Y S, Li Z Q, Wang P C, Hao W M, Nordgren B L, Wang S G, Liu G R, Wang L L, Wen T X, Sun Y, Hu B. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent of aerosols observed by the Chinese Sun Hazemeter Network from August 2004 to September 2005. J Geophys Res, 2007, 112: D05203 CrossRef Google Scholar

[368] Xu L T, Zhang Y J, Liu H Y, Zheng D, Wang F. The role of dynamic transport in the formation of the inverted charge structure in a simulated hailstorm. Sci China Earth Sci, 2016, 59: 1414-1426 CrossRef Google Scholar

[369] Xue C, Ye C, Zhang Y, Ma Z, Liu P, Zhang C, Zhao X, Liu J, Mu Y. Development and application of a twin open-top chambers method to measure soil HONO emission in the North China Plain. Sci Total Environ, 2019, 659: 621-631 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[370] Yan Q, Hua D, Li S. 2013. Observation and productization of the micro-pulsed Mie scattering lidar system. Chinese J Quantum Elec, 30: 123–128. Google Scholar

[371] Yang J, Zhang P, Lu N, Yang Z, Shi J, Dong C. Improvements on global meteorological observations from the current Fengyun 3 satellites and beyond. Int J Digital Earth, 2012, 5: 251-265 CrossRef Google Scholar

[372] Yang J, Zhang Z, Wei C, Lu F, Guo Q. Introducing the new generation of Chinese geostationary weather satellites, Fengyun-4. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc, 2017, 98: 1637-1658 CrossRef Google Scholar

[373] Yang K, Koike T, Fujii H, Tamagawa K, Hirose N. Improvement of surface flux parametrizations with a turbulence-related length. Q J R Meteorol Soc, 2002, 128: 2073-2087 CrossRef Google Scholar

[374] Yao L, Garmash O, Bianchi F, Zheng J, Yan C, Kontkanen J, Junninen H, Mazon S B, Ehn M, Paasonen P, Sipilä M, Wang M, Wang X, Xiao S, Chen H, Lu Y, Zhang B, Wang D, Fu Q, Geng F, Li L, Wang H, Qiao L, Yang X, Chen J, Kerminen V M, Petäjä T, Worsnop D R, Kulmala M, Wang L. Atmospheric new particle formation from sulfuric acid and amines in a Chinese megacity. Science, 2018, 361: 278-281 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[375] Yin P, Brauer M, Cohen A, Burnett R T, Liu J, Liu Y, Liang R, Wang W, Qi J, Wang L, Zhou M. Long-term fine particulate matter exposure and nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in a large national cohort of Chinese men. Environ Health Perspect, 2017, 125: 117002 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[376] You L, Liu Y. Some microphysical characteristics of cloud and precipitation over China. Atmos Res, 1995, 35: 271-281 CrossRef Google Scholar

[377] Yuan X Y, Feng Z Z, Liu S, Shang B, Li P, Xu Y S, Paoletti E. Concentration- and flux-based dose-responses of isoprene emission from poplar leaves and plants exposed to an ozone concentration gradient. Plant Cell Environ, 2017, 40: 1960-1971 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[378] Yue D L, Hu M, Zhang R Y, Wang Z B, Zheng J, Wu Z J, Wiedensohler A, He L Y, Huang X F, Zhu T. The roles of sulfuric acid in new particle formation and growth in the mega-city of Beijing. Atmos Chem Phys, 2010, 10: 4953-4960 CrossRef Google Scholar

[379] Yue Z, Rosenfeld D, Liu G, Dai J, Yu X, Zhu Y, Hashimshoni E, Xu X, Hui Y, Lauer O. Automated Mapping of Convective Clouds (AMCC) Thermodynamical, Microphysical, and CCN Properties from SNPP /VIIRS Satellite Data. J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 2019, 58: 887-902 CrossRef Google Scholar

[380] Zeng C, Liu C, Li J, Zhu B, Yin Y, Wang Y. Optical properties and radiative forcing of aged BC due to hygroscopic growth: Effects of the aggregate structure. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2019, 124: 4620-4633 CrossRef Google Scholar

[381] Zeng Q C, Cheng X L, Hu F, Peng Z. Gustiness and coherent structure of strong winds and their role in dust emission and entrainment. Adv Atmos Sci, 2010, 27: 1-13 CrossRef Google Scholar

[382] Zhang F, Li J N. Doubling-adding method for delta-four-stream spherical harmonic expansion approximation in radiative transfer parameterization. J Atmos Sci, 2013, 70: 3084-3101 CrossRef Google Scholar

[383] Zhang F, Wu K, Li J, Yang Q, Zhao J Q, Li J. Analytical infrared delta-four-stream adding method from invariance principle. J Atmos Sci, 2016, 73: 4171-4188 CrossRef Google Scholar

[384] Zhang F, Wu K, Li J, Zhang H, Hu S. Radiative transfer in the region with solar and infrared spectra overlap. J Quant Spectrosc Ra, 2018, 219: 366-378 CrossRef Google Scholar

[385] Zhang F, Zhu M, Li J, Li W, Di D, Shi Y, Wu K. 2019. Alternate mapping correlated k-distribution method for infrared radiative transfer forward simulation. Remote Sens, 11: 994, doi: 10.3390/rs11090994. Google Scholar

[386] Zhang H, Li X. Review of the field measurements and parameterization for dust emission during sand-dust events. J Meteorol Res, 2014, 28: 903-922 CrossRef Google Scholar

[387] Zhang H, Jing X, Li J. Application and evaluation of a new radiation code under McICA scheme in BCC_AGCM2.0.1. Geosci Model Dev, 2014, 7: 737-754 CrossRef Google Scholar

[388] Zhang H, Nakajima T, Shi G Y, Suzuki T, Imasu R. An optimal approach to overlapping bands with correlated k distribution method and its application to radiative calculations. J Geophys Res, 2003, 108: 4641 CrossRef Google Scholar

[389] Zhang H, Shi G. 2001. An improved approach to diffuse radiation. J Quant Pectrosc Radiat Transfer, 70: 367–372. Google Scholar

[390] Zhang H, Wang M, Guo Z, Zhou C, Zhou T, Qian Y, Larson V E, Ghan S, Ovchinnikov M, Bogenschutz P A, Gettelman A. Low-cloud feedback in CAM5-CLUBB: Physical mechanisms and parameter sensitivity analysis. J Adv Model Earth Syst, 2018a, 10: 2844-2864 CrossRef Google Scholar

[391] Zhang H, Zhang H, Cai X, Song Y, Sun J. Contribution of low-frequency motions to sensible heat fluxes over urban and suburban areas. Bound-Layer Meteorol, 2016, 161: 183-201 CrossRef Google Scholar

[392] Zhang H, Zhang Y, He H, Xie Y, Zeng Q. Comparison of raindrop size distributions in a midlatitude continental squall line during different stages as measured by parsivel over East China. J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 2017, 56: 2097-2111 CrossRef Google Scholar

[393] Zhang H, Zhou C, Zhao S. Influences of the internal mixing of anthropogenic aerosols on global aridity change. J Meteorol Res, 2018b, 32: 723-733 CrossRef Google Scholar

[394] Zhang J, An J, Qu Y, Liu X, Chen Y. Impacts of potential HONO sources on the concentrations of oxidants and secondary organic aerosols in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China. Sci Total Environ, 2019, 647: 836-852 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[395] Zhang P, Lu Q F, Hu X Q, Gu S Y, Yang L, Min M, Chen L, Xu N, Sun L, Bai W G, Ma G, Xian D. Latest progress of the Chinese meteorological satellite program and core data processing technologies. Adv Atmos Sci, 2019a, 36: 1027-1045 CrossRef Google Scholar

[396] Zhang P, Zhu L, Tang S H, Gao L, Chen L, Zheng W, Han X Z, Chen J, Shao J L. General comparison of FY-4A/AGRI with other GEO/LEO instruments and its potential and challenges in non-meteorological applications. Front Earth Sci, 2019b, 6 CrossRef Google Scholar

[397] Zhang W, Zhang Y, Zheng D, Wang F, Xu L. 2015. Relationship between lightning activity and tropical cyclone intensity over the northwest Pacific. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 120: 4072–4089. Google Scholar

[398] Zhang Q, Geng G N, Wang S W, Richter A, He K B. Satellite remote sensing of changes in NOx emissions over China during 1996–2010. Chin Sci Bull, 2012, 57: 2857-2864 CrossRef Google Scholar

[399] Zhang Q, Jiang X, Tong D, Davis S J, Zhao H, Geng G, Feng T, Zheng B, Lu Z, Streets D G, Ni R, Brauer M, van Donkelaar A, Martin R V, Huo H, Liu Z, Pan D, Kan H, Yan Y, Lin J, He K, Guan D. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade. Nature, 2017, 543: 705-709 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[400] Zhang Q, Streets D G, Carmichael G R, He K B, Huo H, Kannari A, Klimont Z, Park I S, Reddy S, Fu J S, Chen D, Duan L, Lei Y, Wang L T, Yao Z L. Asian emissions in 2006 for the NASA INTEX-B mission. Atmos Chem Phys, 2009, 9: 5131-5153 CrossRef Google Scholar

[401] Zhang R, Jing J, Tao J, Hsu S C, Wang G, Cao J, Lee C S L, Zhu L, Chen Z, Zhao Y, Shen Z. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Beijing: Seasonal perspective. Atmos Chem Phys, 2013, 13: 7053-7074 CrossRef Google Scholar

[402] Zhang W, Tong S, Ge M, An J, Shi Z, Hou S, Xia K, Qu Y, Zhang H, Chu B, Sun Y, He H. Variations and sources of nitrous acid (HONO) during a severe pollution episode in Beijing in winter 2016. Sci Total Environ, 2019, 648: 253-262 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[403] Zhang X, Zhong J, Wang J, Wang Y, Liu Y. The interdecadal worsening of weather conditions affecting aerosol pollution in the Beijing area in relation to climate warming. Atmos Chem Phys, 2018, 18: 5991-5999 CrossRef Google Scholar

[404] Zhang Y H, Hu M, Zhong L J, Wiedensohler A, Liu S C, Andreae M O, Wang W, Fan S J. Regional integrated experiments on air quality over Pearl River Delta 2004 (PRIDE-PRD2004): Overview. Atmos Environ, 2008, 42: 6157-6173 CrossRef Google Scholar

[405] Zhang Y, Zhou Q, Lv S, Jia S, Tao F, Chen D, Guo J. Elucidating cloud vertical structures based on three-year Ka-band cloud radar observations from Beijing, China. Atmos Res, 2019, 222: 88-99 CrossRef Google Scholar

[406] Zhao B, Zheng H, Wang S, Smith K R, Lu X, Aunan K, Gu Y, Wang Y, Ding D, Xing J, Fu X, Yang X, Liou K N, Hao J. Change in household fuels dominates the decrease in PM2.5 exposure and premature mortality in China in 2005–2015. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2018, 115: 12401-12406 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[407] Zhao C, Yu Y, Kuang Y, Tao J, Zhao G. Recent progress of aerosol light-scattering enhancement factor studies in China. Adv Atmos Sci, 2019, 36: 1015-1026 CrossRef Google Scholar

[408] Zhao C, Liu L, Wang Q, Qiu Y, Wang W, Wang Y, Fan T. Toward Understanding the properties of high ice clouds at the Naqu site on the Tibetan Plateau using ground-based active remote sensing measurements obtained during a short period in July 2014. J Appl Meteorol Climatol, 2016, 55: 2493-2507 CrossRef Google Scholar

[409] Zhao H, Zheng Y, Wu X. Assessment of yield and economic losses for wheat and rice due to ground-level O3 exposure in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Atmos Environ, 2018, 191: 241-248 CrossRef Google Scholar

[410] Zhao J Q, Shi G Y. 2013. An accurate approximation to the diffusivity factor. Infrared Phys Technol, 56: 21–24. Google Scholar

[411] Zhao J Q, Hu Y Q. Bridging technique for calculating the extinction efficiency of arbitrary shaped particles. Appl Opt, 2003, 42: 4937-4945 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[412] Zhao L, Han B, Lv S H, Wen L J, Meng X H, Li Z G. The different influence of the residual layer on the development of the summer convective boundary layer in two deserts in northwest China. Theor Appl Climatol, 2018, 131: 877-888 CrossRef Google Scholar

[413] Zhao W, Peng Y, Wang B, Li J. Cloud longwave scattering effect and its impact on climate simulation. Atmosphere, 2018, 9: 153 CrossRef Google Scholar

[414] Zheng B, Tong D, Li M, Liu F, Hong C, Geng G, Li H, Li X, Peng L, Qi J, Yan L, Zhang Y, Zhao H, Zheng Y, He K, Zhang Q. Trends in China’s anthropogenic emissions since 2010 as the consequence of clean air actions. Atmos Chem Phys, 2018, 18: 14095-14111 CrossRef Google Scholar

[415] Zheng D, Zhang Y, Meng Q. 2018. Properties of negative initial leaders and lightning flash size in a cluster of supercells. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 123: 12857–12876. Google Scholar

[416] Zheng D, Zhang Y J, Zhang Y, Lu W T, Yan X, Chen S D, Xu L T, Huang Z G, You J, Zhang R, Su Z G. Characteristics of the initial stage and return stroke currents of rocket-triggered lightning flashes in southern China. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2017, 122: 6431-6452 CrossRef Google Scholar

[417] Zhong Z, Zhou J, Qi F, Fan A, Yue G, Lan J. 2003. Portable mie lidar for monitoring atmsopheric aerosol extinction. High Power Laser and Particle Beams, 15. Google Scholar

[418] Zhou C H, Gong S L, Zhang X Y, Wang Y Q, Niu T, Liu H L, Zhao T L, Yang Y Q, Hou Q. Development and evaluation of an operational SDS forecasting system for East Asia: CUACE/Dust. Atmos Chem Phys, 2008, 8: 787-798 CrossRef Google Scholar

[419] Zhou W Y, Guo P W, Luo Y, Liou K N, Gu Y, Xue Y K. 2009. Four-stream radiative transfer parameterization scheme in a land surface process model. Acta Meteorol Sin, 23: 105–115. Google Scholar

[420] Zhu Y, Rosenfeld D, Yu X, Li Z. Separating aerosol microphysical effects and satellite measurement artifacts of the relationships between warm rain onset height and aerosol optical depth. J Geophys Res-Atmos, 2015, 120: 7726-7736 CrossRef Google Scholar

  • 图 1

    新中国成立70年以来云雾物理的研究进展

  • 图 2

    2035年中国风云气象卫星发展远景规划

  • 表 1   改革开放以来发射的风云气象卫星

    卫星名称

    卫星类型

    发射时间

    卫星功能和状态

    FY-1A

    极轨

    1988年9月7日

    研发卫星, 退役

    FY-1B

    极轨

    1990年9月3日

    研发卫星, 退役

    FY-1C

    极轨

    1999年5月10日

    业务卫星, 退役

    FY-1D

    极轨

    2002年5月15日

    业务卫星, 退役

    FY-3A

    极轨

    2008年5月27日

    研发卫星, 退役

    FY-3B

    极轨

    2010年11月5日

    研发卫星, 在轨运行

    FY-3C

    极轨

    2013年9月23日

    业务卫星, 在轨运行

    FY-3D

    极轨

    2017年11月15日

    业务卫星, 在轨运行

    FY-2A

    静止

    1997年6月10日

    研发卫星, 退役

    FY-2B

    静止

    2000年6月25日

    研发卫星, 退役

    FY-2C

    静止

    2004年10月18日

    业务卫星, 退役

    FY-2D

    静止

    2006年12月8日

    业务卫星, 退役

    FY-2E

    静止

    2008年12月23日

    业务卫星, 退役

    FY-2F

    静止

    2012年1月13日

    业务卫星, 在轨运行

    FY-2G

    静止

    2014年12月31日

    业务卫星, 在轨运行

    FY-2H

    静止

    2018年6月5日

    业务运行, 在轨运行

    FY-4A

    静止

    2016年12月11日

    研发卫星, 在轨运行

  • 表 2   中国自主搭建的烟雾箱及应用

    单位

    时间

    体积及材料

    配置

    中国科学院生态环境研究中心

    (吴海等, 2001)

    2001

    100L, Teflon

    GC

    中国人民解放军电子工程学院

    (聂劲松等, 2002)

    2002

    23L, 石英玻璃

    激光质谱

    清华大学

    (任凯锋等, 2005)

    2005

    23m3, Teflon, 双生

    GC, NOx、O3分析仪, 温湿度测控仪, 辐照计

    清华大学

    (Lu等, 2009)

    2005

    2m3

    石墨气溶胶发生器, 原子化器, CO/O3/NOx分析仪, SMPS, GC

    中国科学院大气物理研究所

    (Du等, 2007a)

    2006

    70L, Teflon

    O3/NOx分析仪, GC

    中国科学院化学研究所

    (Gai等, 2009)

    2008

    100~360L, Teflon

    15~50℃, GC, O3/NOx分析仪

    中国科学院化学研究所

    (Gai等, 2013)

    2011

    1~3m3

    O3/NOx分析仪, GC, SMPS

    中国科学院化学研究所

    (Wang等, 2015)

    2014

    10m3 FEP膜, 双生

    SPMS, CRDS, CPMA, PT-MS, VUV-TOF-MS, CO/O3/分析仪, 0~40℃

    中国科学院广州地球化学研究所

    (Wang等, 2014)

    2014

    30m3

    PTR-TOF-MS, HR-TOF-AMS, GC-MSD/FID, PILS-IC, O3/NOx/CO/NH3/SO2分析仪, SMPS

    中国科学院生态环境研究中心

    (Liu Y等, 2015)

    2015

    9m3, Teflon

    HR-TOF-PTRMS, DMA, HR-TOF-AMS, SMPS, O3/NOx/CO/NH3/SO2

  • 表 3   国内自主研发的主要数值模式及应用

    模式名称

    开发单位

    特点与发展过程

    应用领域

    NAQPMS

    中国科学院大气物理研究所

    耦合了多尺度双向嵌套、污染来源解析、化学资料同化、过程分析、气象-化学双向反馈等模式先进技术, 可实现区域-城市尺度大气污染的高效、稳定、准确模拟预报

    应用于国内多个省市的空气质量业务预报和重大活动空气质量保障

    GEATM

    中国科学院大气物理研究所

    结合亚洲地区自身特点, 以硫酸盐、黑碳、沙尘气溶胶、二氧化硫等物质为主要研究对象的全球模式. 采用的动力框架为地形追随球坐标下的三维大气化学物质输送方程, 对主要化学过程采用参数化计算处理

    对大气中多种化学物质的分布状况、输送态势进行数值模拟, 模拟了全球二氧化硫、硫酸盐、黑碳和沙尘的浓度分布

    CUACE

    中国气象研究科学院

    包含了污染排放、气态化学、气溶胶、数值同化等模块; 加入沙尘长波辐射参数化方案, 提高了模型对气溶胶辐射效应的模拟能力; 加入了三维变量同化和气溶胶辐射反馈方案, 大大提高了模型对沙尘浓度、温度、气压、风速的模拟精度

    建立有中国雾-霾数值预报系统(CUACE/Haze-fog), 可提供PM10和PM2.5 7种气溶胶组分、O3和能见度等数值预报产品, 在2008年奥运期间首次应用, 并参与了2009年国庆阅兵, 在国家气象中心和一些地方气象部门推广应用. 此外还有在线化学天气预报系统(GRAPES-CUACE)和亚洲沙尘暴数值预报系统(CUACE/Dust)等

    RegAEMS

    南京大学

    最早由1994年的NJUADMS酸雨模式发展而来,用于计算SO2、NOx、硫酸盐等大气污染物浓度和酸沉降量. 2000年对化学过程作合理简化, 建立不同条件下SO2、NOx转化率的数据库, 并对液相化学和湿清除过程进行参数化处理. 2008年后逐步耦合二次气溶胶模块、沙尘和海盐气溶胶过程、汞化学、大气污染来源解析等模块, 增加了支持MM5、WRF等气象模式输出数据的接口, 具备了第三代空气质量模式的主要特征,可用于区域大气复合污染模拟和空气质量预报

    成功应用于2014年南京青奥会、2016年G20峰会、2018年青岛上合峰会、2019年青岛海军节的空气质量预报. 此外, 基于数值模型和受体模型的RegAEMS-CMB颗粒物来源解析方法为颗粒物合理控制提供了科学依据

  • 表 4   国内气候化学耦合模式发展及其应用

    耦合模式

    应用实例

    RegCCMS

    将区域气候模式RegCM3和对流层大气化学模式TACM耦合发展而来, 能够实现对东亚地区特别是中国地区人为和自然气溶胶、臭氧及前体物的时空分布特征进行模拟, 可以用于评估中国地区主要气溶胶对东亚地区辐射、云、气温、降水和环流的影响

    BCC_AGCM2.0_CUACE/Aero

    将国家气候中心大气环流模式BCC_AGCM与中国气象科学研究院气溶胶/大气化学模式CUACE/Aero在线耦合发展而来, 是中国目前唯一参加气溶胶国际比对计划(AeroCom)的模式. 利用该模式获得的全球人为气溶胶直接辐射强迫、黑碳气溶胶垂直廓线和雪盖效应等成果被IPCC第五次评估报告引用

    RIEMS-Chem

    描述了人为和自然气溶胶在大气中经历的主要物理、化学过程及其与大气辐射和动力之间的相互反馈作用, 该系统在研究东亚区域气溶胶的时空演变以及对大气辐射和气候系统的影响方面表现出色, 可用于研究区域气溶胶的时空演变以及对大气辐射和气候系统的影响

Copyright 2020  CHINA SCIENCE PUBLISHING & MEDIA LTD.  中国科技出版传媒股份有限公司  版权所有

京ICP备14028887号-23       京公网安备11010102003388号