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  • ReceivedAug 1, 2019
  • AcceptedSep 26, 2019
  • PublishedNov 4, 2019

Abstract

新中国成立70年来, 中国的矿产资源勘查取得了一系列重大进展, 发现了数百个大型超大型矿床, 形成16个重要成矿带. 这些找矿重大发现为系统开展矿床成因研究、构建矿床模式、总结区域成矿规律和创新成矿理论提供了重要条件. 中国的矿床学研究和发展大致可以划分为三个阶段, 分别是新中国成立之初至20世纪70年代末, 改革开放初期至20世纪末, 以及21世纪之初到现在. 论文首先概述了上述三个历史时期中国矿床学发展的特点和主要研究进展. 早期的矿床学研究与生产实际紧密结合, 重点关注矿床的地质特征和矿床分类. 这一时期虽然研究条件落后, 但学术思想活跃, 提出了一系列创新的学术观点, 建立了多个有重要影响的矿床模式, 同时开始将成矿实验引入矿床形成机理的探讨. 第二个阶段的一个显著特点是各种地球化学理论与方法被广泛应用于矿床学的研究, 大大促进了对成矿作用过程和成矿机制的理解, 并在分散元素成矿理论和超大型矿床研究方面取得了重大进展和突破, 同时将板块构造引入各类矿床成矿环境和时空分布规律的研究. 第三个阶段是中国矿床学与世界矿床学全面接轨并实现成矿理论系统创新的时期. 这一时期各种先进的实验分析技术有力支撑了矿床成因的研究, 深刻揭示了地幔柱活动、克拉通化、克拉通破坏、大陆裂谷作用、多块体拼合、大陆碰撞等重大地质事件与大规模成矿作用的耦合关系, 并在大陆碰撞成矿、大面积低温成矿作用等重大科学问题的研究上取得了原创性成果, 产生了重要的国际影响. 论文概述了16类重要矿床类型的代表性研究进展, 重点介绍了大塘坡式锰矿、大冶式铁矿、铜陵狮子山式铜矿、玢岩型铁矿、铁氧化物-铜-金(IOCG)矿床和石英脉型钨矿的成矿模式, 分析了若干重大地质事件的成矿效应, 总结了元素地球化学、稳定同位素地球化学、同位素年代学、流体包裹体分析、成矿实验、矿田构造等研究方法对推动中国矿床学发展所起的作用. 文章最后简要分析了今后中国矿床学研究的发展趋势和重要研究方向, 认为深部成矿作用规律、关键金属元素富集机理、非常规矿产资源、重大地质事件与成矿、超大型矿床等是今后矿床学的重点研究内容, 提出要创新矿床学研究方法, 加强跨学科交叉研究, 使中国的矿床学能逐渐引领世界矿床学的研究, 服务矿产资源国家重大需求.


Funded by

国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0600104)

国家自然科学基金项目(41772081,U1812402)


Acknowledgment

感谢《中国科学: 地球科学》主编郑永飞院士的约稿和鼓励. 翟裕生院士对论文章节安排和内容取舍等提供了建设性的意见和指导, 并提供了一些重要的参考资料. 毛景文院士审阅了“与花岗岩有关的钨锡矿床”部分. 侯增谦院士和胡瑞忠研究员详细审阅了全文并提出了宝贵的修改建议和意见, 使论文质量得以显著提高, 在此表示衷心感谢. 论文撰写过程中参考了大量前人资料, 但限于作者学识和论文篇幅所限, 无法对前人的工作予以逐一引用和列举, 谨此表示谢忱和歉意. 新中国的矿床学发展历经70年, 几代人、数以万计的矿床地质工作者对散布于九百六十万平方公里国土上的成千上万个矿床开展了系统研究, 积累的资料和发表的著述如浩瀚星海. 在本文写作过程中穿越矿床学研究几十年的时光隧道, 深深敬佩几代矿床学家求实创新、开拓进取的科学精神, 感念老一辈科学家在条件十分艰苦和落后的条件下为了新中国的矿床学事业伏骥前行、做出了卓著贡献, 为新时期中国矿床学的研究奠定了坚实的基础. 展望今后几十年, 中国的矿床学家仍将无愧于伟大的时代, 为国家的矿产资源重大需求做出新的更大的贡献, 中国的矿床学学科也必将以更具创新和引领的姿态呈现在世人的面前.


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