This article reports on the application of the Φ(z/l,X) rule of chemical processes in seawater to the study of the Principle of Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB). One result is the establishment of new scales of the hardness-softness of acids and bases which are more complete than those in the literature.Based on the principle of HSAB as well as abundant experimental data, we developed a new general principle of marine chemistry viz. the principle of least Σ. Application of the principle of least Σ has produced good results in the study of chemical model of the major constituents of seawater, the chemical speciation of trace elements, inorganic ion exchange reactions, the Irving-Williams aeries of transition elements, etc. Our investigations indicate that chemical models of the major constituents of seawater should take into consideration the formation of chloride ion pairs.