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A facile template free synthesis of porous carbon nanospheres with high capacitive performance

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  • ReceivedOct 10, 2017
  • AcceptedNov 16, 2017
  • PublishedJan 24, 2018

Abstract


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51672282,21373238)

the major State Basic Research Program of China(2013CB934000)

and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(XDA09010101)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51672282, 21373238), the Major State Basic Research Program of China (2013CB934000), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA09010101).


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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  • Figure 1

    TEM images of the 3-AF resin spheres synthesized in ethanol/water solvent (v/v, 10 mL/20 mL) at room temperature. (a) 3-AF resin spheres without acetone treatment; (b) 3-AF resin spheres treated with 5 mL acetone; (c) 3-AF resin spheres treated with 20 mL acetone; (d) 3-AF resin spheres treated with 45 mL acetone.

  • Figure 2

    TEM images of the 3-AF resin spheres synthesized in ethanol/water solvent with different quotient of ethanol at room temperature.(a) Ethanol/water (v/v, 0 mL/30 mL); (b) ethanol/water (v/v, 4 mL/26 mL); (c) ethanol/water (v/v, 6 mL/24 mL); (d) ethanol/water (v/v, 12 mL/18 mL).

  • Figure 3

    TEM images of the 3-AF resin spheres synthesized in n-butanol/water mixture with different quotient of n-butanol at room temperature. (a) n-butanol/water (v/v, 2 mL/28 mL); (b) n-butanol/water (v/v, 3 mL/27 mL); (c) n-butanol/water (v/v, 4 mL/26 mL), (BPR spheres); (d) n-butanol/water (v/v, 10 mL/20 mL).

  • Figure 4

    TEM images of 3-AF resin spheres prepared in the n-butanol/water (v/v, 4 mL/26 mL) emulsion at room temperature and etched for the same time. (a) TEM image of the 3-AF resin spheres when the polymerization time was shortened into 10 min; (b) TEM image of the 3-AF resin spheres when the polymerization time was extended into 2 h.

  • Figure 5

    TEM images of 3-AF resin spheres prepared in the n-butanol/water (v/v, 4 mL/26 mL) emulsion at different temperatures. (a) TEM image of 3-AF resin spheres prepared at 10 °C; (b) TEM image of 3-AF resin spheres prepared at 35 °C.

  • Figure 6

    Information of the BPC spheres. (a) TEM image of the BPC spheres; (b) XRD patterns of the BPC spheres, labelled with the (002) peak and (100) peak of graphite; (c) Raman spectrum of the BPC spheres; (d) nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms (inset: size distribution curves) of the BPC spheres; (e) STEM image of the BPC spheres; (f, g) elemental mapping of the BPC spheres (color online).

  • Figure 7

    Electrochemical performance of the BPC based super capacitors. (a) Cyclic voltammetry curves tested at different scan rates; (b) charge/discharge curves obtained in galvanostatic tests at different current densities; (c) cycling performance tested at 1 A/g; (d) Nyquist plots of the BPC based super capacitor (color online).

  • Table 1   Precipitation time of 3-AF resin in the butanol/water mixture

    n-butanol/water (v/v)

    Precipitation time (min)

    0 mL/30 mL

    0.5

    2 mL/28 mL

    0.75

    3 mL/27 mL

    1.2

    4 mL/26 mL

    1.5

    10 mL/20 mL

    5

  • Table 2   Precipitation time of 3-AF resin in the ethanol/water mixture

    Ethanol/water (v/v)

    Precipitation time (min)

    0 mL/30 mL

    0.5

    4 mL/26 mL

    1

    6 mL/24 mL

    1.3

    10 mL/20 mL

    4

    12 mL/18 mL

    7.5

  • Table 3   Specific capacity of the BPC spheres tested with cyclic voltammetry method

    Scan rate (mV/s)

    Specific capacity (F/g)

    1

    145.1

    2

    137.2

    5

    128.5

    10

    121.6

    20

    113.4

    50

    99.8

    100

    85.4

  • Table 4   Specific Capacity of the BPC spheres tested with galvanostatic method

    Current density (A/g)

    Specific capacity (F/g)

    0.1

    162.7

    0.2

    128.9

    0.5

    105.8

    1

    101.5

    2

    97.2

    5

    90.7

  • Table 5   Summary of some of the various classes of carbon based materials investigated

    Material

    Workingvoltage (V)

    Specific capacitance (mA h/g)

    Our work

    1.0

    162.7

    Activated carbon (AC) [25]

    3.5

    40

    Carbon aerogels [26]

    3.0

    160

    Mesoporous carbon [27]

    0.9

    180

    AC fiber cloth [28]

    1.0

    208

    Carbon nanotubes [29]

    2.3

    50

    Graphene [30]

    1.0

    205

    PANI fibers [31]

    0.45

    216

    Graphene coated PANIfibers [31]

    0.45

    531