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Efficient and stable tin-based perovskite solar cells by introducing π-conjugated Lewis base

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  • ReceivedAug 30, 2019
  • AcceptedNov 8, 2019
  • PublishedDec 11, 2019

Abstract

Tin-based perovskite solar cells (TPSCs) as the most promising candidate for lead-free PSCs have incurred extensive researches all over the world. However, the crystallization process of tin-based perovskite is too fast during the solution-deposited process, resulting in abundant pinholes and poor homogeneity that cause serious charge recombination in perovskite layer. Here, we employed the π-conjugated Lewis base molecules with high electron density to systematically control the crystallization rate of FASnI3 perovskite by forming stable intermediate phase with the Sn-I frameworks, leading to a compact and uniform perovskite film with large increase in the carrier lifetime. Meanwhile, the introduction of the π-conjugated systems also retards the permeation of moisture into perovskite crystal, which significantly suppresses the film degradation in air. These benefits contributed to a stabilizing power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.1% for the TPSCs and maintained over 90% of its initial PCE after 1000-h light soaking in air. Also, a steady-state efficiency of 9.2% was certified at the accredited test center.


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(11574199,11674219,11834011)

and the Program for Professor of Special Appointment(Eastern,Scholar)

and the KAKEHI Grant of Japan(18H02078)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11574199, 11674219, 11834011), and the Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar) at Shanghai Institutions of Higher Learning. The work performed at National Institute for Materials Science was supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO, Japan), and the KAKEHI Grant of Japan (18H02078).


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Supplement

The supporting information is available online at http://chem.scichina.com and http://link.springer.com/journal/11426. The supporting materials are published as submitted, without typesetting or editing. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and content remains entirely with the authors.


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  • Figure 1

    Crystallization-controlling mechanism of the π-conjugated Lewis base. (a) Chemical structures of the CTA-F, CTA-OMe, and CDTA molecules. (b) XRD patterns of the as-prepared FASnI3 perovskite films treated with different π-conjugated Lewis base molecules without thermal annealing. The insets showed the photograph of corresponding films. (c) XRD patterns of the perovskite films after annealing at 100 °C for 10 min. The diffraction peaks indicated by # represent the Bragg reflections were associated with the ITO substrate. (d) Schematic illustration of the nucleation and crystallization process of the FASnI3 and CDTA-treated FASnI3 films (color online).

  • Figure 2

    Impact of π-conjugated Lewis base on the morphology and photoelectric property of FASnI3 perovskite film. (a) The top morphologies of FASnI3 film and (b) the film treated by CDTA with a concentration of 0.2%. (c) Time-resolved PL spectrums of the corresponding perovskite films. (d, e) Two-dimensional PL mapping by the confocal-fluorescence spectroscopy. The scale bar is 20 μm in the images. (f, g) Linear distribution of the PL intensity is derived from the two-dimensional PL mapping profile. All the samples for PL measurement were deposited on the bare glass (color online).

  • Figure 3

    Stability measurement of Sn-based perovskite films. (a, b) XPS Sn 3d spectrum of the corresponding perovskite films exposed to air for different time. The relative humidity was controlled at around 50%. (c, d) Static contact angle measurements with water on top of the FASnI3 and CDTA-treated FASnI3 films. (e) Atomic ration of the Sn4+ component derived from XPS Sn 3d spectrum as a function of air exposed time. (f, g) Normalized XRD patterns of the corresponding perovskite films exposed to air for different time. The reflections indicated by asterisk represent the Bragg reflections associated with oxidized FASnI3 (color online).

  • Figure 4

    Characterization of the perovskite solar cells. (a) Device configuration of the TPSCs. (b) J-V plots of the best devices based on control and CDTA-treated samples measured under forward scan. The device active area is 0.09 cm2. (c) Internal photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) of the devices. (d) 1000-min continuous output of the devices measured under the maximum power point (MPPT). (e) Mott-Schottky analysis of the control and CDTA-treated TPSCs. (f) The stability test of TPSCs under light soaking (AM 1.5 G, 100 mW cm−2) in air with a relative humidity of 30%. All the cells that went through the aging test were encapsulated (color online).

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