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SCIENCE CHINA Chemistry, Volume 63 , Issue 10 : 1461-1468(2020) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11426-019-9681-8

Non-fullerene acceptor fibrils enable efficient ternary organic solar cells with 16.6% efficiency

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  • ReceivedDec 19, 2019
  • AcceptedJan 8, 2020
  • PublishedFeb 12, 2020

Abstract

Optimizing the components and morphology within the photoactive layer of organic solar cells (OSCs) can significantly enhance their power conversion efficiency (PCE). A new A-D-A type non-fullerene acceptor IDMIC-4F is designed and synthesized in this work, and is employed as the third component to prepare high performance ternary solar cells. IDMIC-4F can form fibrils after solution casting, and the presence of this fibrillar structure in the PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F host confines the growth of donors and acceptors into fine domains, as well as acting as transport channels to enhance electron mobility. Single junction ternary devices incorporating 10 wt% IDMIC-4F exhibit enhanced light absorption and balanced carrier mobility, and achieve a maximum PCE of 16.6% compared to 15.7% for the binary device, which is a remarkable efficiency for OSCs reported in literature. This non-fullerene acceptor fibril network strategy is a promising method to improve the photovoltaic performance of ternary OSCs.


Funded by

the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province of China(2018CFA055)

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21774097)

the 111 project(B18038)

M.E.O’K.(EP/L016281/1:,CDT,in,Polymers,Soft,Matter,Colloids)

J.A.S.(EP/L01551X/1:,CDT,in,New,Sustainable,PV)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province of China (2018CFA055), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21774097) and the 111 project (B18038). All authors thank the beamline BL16B1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (China) for providing the beam time and help during GISAXS experiment. We also thank the Diamond Light Source (UK) beamline I07 where GIWAXS measurements were performed (via beamtime allocation SI22651-1). We also thank the U.K. EPSRC for funding studentships for R.C.K. (DTG allocation), M.E.O’K. (EP/L016281/1: CDT in Polymers, Soft Matter and Colloids) and J.A.S. (EP/L01551X/1: CDT in New and Sustainable PV).


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Supplement

The supporting information is available online at http://chem.scichina.com and http://link.springer.com/journal/11426. The supporting materials are published as submitted, without typesetting or editing. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and content remains entirely with the authors.


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  • Figure 1

    (a) The chemical structures and (b) energy levels of PBDB-T-2F, BTP-4F and IDMIC-4F. (c) The absorption spectra of PBDB-T-2F, BTP-4F and IDMIC-4F pure films. (d) AFM image, (e) 2D GIWAXS pattern for a pure IDMIC-4F film (color online).

  • Figure 2

    (a) The absorption spectra of PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F blends with different contents of IDMIC-4F. (b) J-V curves and (c) EQE of ternary OSCs with different contents of IDMIC-4F (color online).

  • Figure 3

    GIWAXS 2D patterns of (a) PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F film, and ternary blend films with (b) 10 wt%, (c) 20 wt% IDMIC-4F, (d) neat BTP-4F film and (e, f) intensity profiles along the out-of-plane and in-plane directions for the neat BTP-4F film and all blend films (color online).

  • Figure 4

    TEM images of (a) PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F blend, and its related ternary blend with (b) 10 wt% IDMIC-4F. 2D GISAXS patterns of (c) PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F blend film, and (d) with the incorporation of 10 wt% IDMIC-4F. (e) 1D GISAXS profiles along qxy axis for PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F blends with different IDMIC-4F contents. (f) Schematic illustration of the confinement effect of IDMIC-4F fibrils, which reduce phase separated domain sizes and act as charge transport channels (color online).

  • Figure 5

    (a) Photocurrent density versus effective voltage and (b) VOC versus light intensity for three blend compositions. Root square plots of (c) electron current densities versus bias voltage Vb1 for ITO/ZnO/Active layer/Ca/Ag electron-only devices and (d) hole current densities versus bias voltage for ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Active layer/MoO3/Ag hole-only devices (color online).

  • Table 1   Photovoltaic parameters of ternary OSCs with different amount of IDMIC-4F. The average values and standard deviations were obtained from statistical analysis of over 20 individual devices

    Component in active layer

    Blending ratio

    FF (%)

    JSC(mA cm−2)

    Calculated JSC (mA cm−2)

    VOC (V)

    PCEavg (%)

    PCEmax (%)

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F

    1:1.2

    73.0±0.3

    25.1±0.4

    24.5

    0.855±0.01

    15.5±0.2

    15.7

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F with 5% IDMIC-4F

    1:1.14:0.06

    73.1±0.3

    25.4±0.3

    24.6

    0.858±0.01

    15.9±0.2

    16.1

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F with 10% IDMIC-4F

    1:1.08:0.12

    74.2±0.1

    25.6±0.2

    25.3

    0.864±0.01

    16.4±0.2

    16.6

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F with 15% IDMIC-4F

    1:1.02:0.18

    73.9±0.4

    24.8±0.2

    24.6

    0.867±0.01

    15.8±0.4

    16.2

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F with 20% IDMIC-4F

    1:0.96:0.24

    71.8±0.4

    24.1±0.2

    23.5

    0.876±0.01

    14.8±0.4

    15.4

    PBDB-T-2F:IDMIC-4F

    1:1.2

    60.5±1.9

    16.6±0.2

    16.1

    0.890±0.01

    8.9±0.3

    9.4

  • Table 2   Fitting parameters of 1D GISAXS profiles of the PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F binary blend, and ternary blends with various amount of IDMIC-4F

    Component

    ξ (nm)

    η (nm)

    D

    2Rg (nm)

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F (1:1.2)

    15.3

    15.1

    2.7

    74.0

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F:IDMIC-4F (1:1.14:0.06)

    14.9

    16.2

    2.7

    72.4

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F:IDMIC-4F (1:1.08:0.12)

    14.6

    16.0

    2.6

    69.2

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F:IDMIC-4F (1:1.02:0.18)

    14.6

    16.4

    2.6

    70.8

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F:IDMIC-4F (1:0.96:0.24)

    14.6

    16.3

    2.6

    70.5

  • Table 3   Jsat, P(E, T), electron and hole mobilities of PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F blend films with different contents of IDMIC-4F

    Components

    Jsat(mA cm−2)

    P(E, T) (%)

    Hole mobility (μh) (cm2 V−1 s−1)

    Electron mobility (μe) (cm2 V−1 s−1)

    μh/μe

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F (1:1.2)

    26.0

    97.7%

    7.6×10−4

    3.1×10−4

    2.45

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F:IDMIC-4F (1:1.14:0.06)

    26.3

    98.0%

    6.8×10−4

    3.7×10−4

    1.84

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F:IDMIC-4F (1:1.08:0.12)

    26.3

    98.1%

    6.9×10−4

    7.5×10−4

    0.92

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F:IDMIC-4F (1:1.02:0.18)

    25.6

    98.1%

    5.4×10−4

    7.9×10−4

    0.68

    PBDB-T-2F:BTP-4F:IDMIC-4F (1:0.96:0.24)

    24.8

    97.8%

    2.1×10−4

    8.2×10−4

    0.26

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