SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, Volume 61 , Issue 1 : 23-32(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-017-9104-9

Exploration of the formation mechanism and source attribution of ambient ozone in Chongqing with an observation-based model

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  • ReceivedMar 16, 2017
  • AcceptedAug 28, 2017
  • PublishedOct 12, 2017


Funded by

work was supportted by the Environmental Public Welfare Industry in China(201509001)

National Science and Technology Supporting Plan(2014BAC21B01)

and the Chongqing project of the Ozone Source Appointment and its impact on surrounding areas are acknowledged.


The support of the Chongqing Environmental Protection Bureau for the integrated field studies is deeply appreciated. The work was supportted by the Environmental Public Welfare Industry in China (Grant No. 201509001), the National Science and Technology Supporting Plan (Grant No. 2014BAC21B01), and the Chongqing Project of the Ozone Source Appointment and its Impact on Surrounding Areas are acknowledged.

Contributions statement

Corresponding author (email: yhzhang@pku.edu.cn)


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  • Figure 1

    Time series measurements of j(O1D), temperature, concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, Ox, ISO, and AHC for three measurement sites at NQ (blue), CZ (red), and JYS (green).

  • Figure 2

    The location of the measurement sites with the maximum 8-hour ozone concentrations (in 10−9 V/V) for two typical days (red dots: online measurement sites, yellow dots: VOC offline measurement sites, cyan dots: VOC intensive measurement sites. The details are provided in the text). The bar plots surrounding the map show the reactivity of the grouped VOCs (in s−1) for the sites.

  • Figure 3

    Mean diurnal profiles of temperature and concentrations of O3, NO2, Ox, reactivity of AHC, and ISO for pollution days (red) and attainment days (blue) at NQ (left), CZ (middle), and JYS (right).

  • Figure 4

    Ozone budget analysis during ozone non-attainment days at NQ (a), CZ (b), and JYS (c).

  • Figure 5

    Time series of RIR for NOx, AHC, NHC, and CO at NQ (a), CZ (b), and JYS (c).

  • Figure 6

    Analysis of chemical control factors of local ozone in Chongqing. (a) Isopleth diagram of ozone production rate for averaged conditions in Chongqing (the isopleth lines are in 10−9 V/V h−1). The x-axis represents the AHC reactivity and the y-axis represents the NOx reactivity. The circles, squares, and diamonds denote the average AHC and NOx reactivity values for 15 measurement sites. (b)–(d) The average RIR values of NOx, AHC, NHC, and CO for campaign-averaged (b), pollution episode-averaged (c), and attainment days-averaged (d) conditions for NQ, CZ, and JYS.

  • Figure 7

    The RIR of different groups of VOCs during ozone non-attainment and attainment days at NQ, CZ, and JYS.

  • Figure 8

    Sources of VOCs. (a) Composition of VOCs in Chongqing based on the PMF Model. (b) RIR of various VOC emission sources based on the PMF results at NQ, CZ, and JYS.

  • Table 1   Summary of the measured species and instrument performance



    Accuracy (1σ)

    Limit of Dection (10−9V/V)


    Thermo Electric 49i



    NO, NO2, NOx

    Thermo Electric 42i


    0.06, 0.3, 0.05






    Thermo Electric 48i




    Wet diffusion tube




    PAN instrument



    jO1D, jNO2, jHONO