logo

SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, Volume 59 , Issue 7 : 1080-1084(2016) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-016-6084-4

In-situ TEM study of the dynamic behavior of the graphene-metal interface evolution under Joule heating

More info
  • ReceivedMar 16, 2016
  • AcceptedMay 4, 2016
  • PublishedJun 20, 2016

Abstract

The dynamic behavior of the interface between few layer graphene (FLG) and tungsten metal tips under Joule heating has been studied by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) method. High-resolution and real-time observations show the tungsten tip ‘swallow’ carbon atoms of the FLG and ‘spit’ graphite shells at its surface. The tip was carbonized to tungsten carbide (WC, W2C and WCx) after this process. A carbon diffusion mechanism has been proposed based on the diffusion of carbon atoms through the tungsten tip and separation from the surface of the tip. After Joule heating, the initial FLG-metal mechanical contact was transformed to FLG-WCx-W contact, which results in significant improvement on electrical conductivity at the interface.


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Program from Ministry of Science and Technology (Grant Nos. 2012CB933003, 2013CB932600, 2013CB934500 & 2013YQ16055107), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474337, 221322304, 51172273 & 51421002), and Strategic Priority Research Program B of the Chinese Academy of Sciences of China (Grant No. XDB07030100).

Supporting Information

The supporting information is available online at tech.scichina.com and www.springerlink.com. The supporting materials are published as submitted, without typesetting or editing. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and content remains entirely with the authors.


References

[1] Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, et al. Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science, 2004, 306: 666-669 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, et al. Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene. Nature, 2005, 438: 197-200 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Geim A K, Novoselov K S. The rise of graphene. Nat Mater, 2007, 6: 183-191 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Zeng M, Wang H, Zhao C, et al. 3D graphene foam-supported cobalt phosphate and borate electrocatalysts for high-efficiency water oxidation. Sci Bull, 2015, 60: 1426-1433 CrossRef Google Scholar

[5] Robinson J A, LaBella M, Zhu M, et al. Contacting graphene. Appl Phys Lett, 2011, 98: 053103 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Xia F, Perebeinos V, Lin Y M, et al. The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance. Nature Nanotechnol, 2011, 6: 179-184 CrossRef Google Scholar

[7] Moon J S, Antcliffe M, Seo H C, et al. Ultra-low resistance ohmic contacts in graphene field effect transistors. Appl Phys Lett, 2012, 100: 203512 CrossRef Google Scholar

[8] Venugopal A, Colombo L, Vogel E M. Contact resistance in few and multilayer graphene devices. Appl Phys Lett, 2010, 96: 013512 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Russo S, Craciun M F, Yamamoto M, et al. Contact resistance in graphene-based devices. Physica E, 2010, 42: 677-679 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Grosse K L, Bae M H, Lian F, et al. Nanoscale Joule heating, peltier cooling and current crowding at graphene-metal contacts. Nat Nanotechnol, 2011, 6: 287-290 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] LeeEduardo J H, Balasubramanian K, Weitz R T, et al. Contact and edge effects in graphene devices. Nat Nanotechnol, 2008, 3: 486-490 CrossRef Google Scholar

[12] Krstić V, Obergfell D, Hansel S, et al. Graphene−metal interface: Two-terminal resistance of low-mobility graphene in high magnetic fields. Nano Lett, 2008, 8: 1700-1703 CrossRef Google Scholar

[13] Lin Y M, Valdes-Garcia A, Han S J, et al. Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit. Science, 2011, 332: 1294-1297 CrossRef Google Scholar

[14] Wu Y, Lin Y M, Bol A A, et al. High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon. Nature, 2011, 472: 74-78 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] Pince E, Kocabas C. Investigation of high frequency performance limit of graphene field effect transistors. Appl Phys Lett, 2010, 97: 173106 CrossRef Google Scholar

[16] Hsu A, Wang H, Kim K K, et al. Impact of graphene interface quality on contact resistance and rf device performance. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2011, 32: 1008-1010 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Nagashio K, Nishimura T, Kita K, et al. Metal/graphene contact as a performance killer of ultra-high mobility graphene analysis of intrinsic mobility and contact resistance. In: Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM) Baltimore MD. 2009, : 1-4 Google Scholar

[18] Balci O, Kocabas C. Rapid thermal annealing of graphene-metal contact. Appl Phys Lett, 2012, 101: 243105 CrossRef Google Scholar

[19] Cassell A M, Raymakers J A, Kong J, et al. Large scale CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes. J Phys Chem B, 1999, 103: 6484-6492 CrossRef Google Scholar

[20] Li X, Cai W, An J, et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils. Science, 2009, 324: 1312-1314 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] Yang F, Wang X, Zhang D, et al. Chirality-specific growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on solid alloy catalysts. Nature, 2014, 510: 522-524 CrossRef Google Scholar

[22] Yang F, Wang X, Zhang D, et al. Growing zigzag (16,0) carbon nanotubes with structure-defined catalysts. J Am Chem Soc, 2015, 137: 8688-8691 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Xu Z, Bando Y, Wang W, et al. Real-time in situ HRTEM-resolved resistance switching of Ag2S nanoscale ionic conductor. ACS Nano, 2010, 4: 2515-2522 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Jiake W, Zhi X, Hao W, et al. In-situ tem imaging of the anisotropic etching of graphene by metal nanoparticles. Nanotechnology, 2014, 25: 465709 CrossRef Google Scholar

[25] Wang L F, Xu Z, Yang S Z, et al. Real-time in sit TEM studying the fading mechnism of tin dioxide nanowire electrodes in lithium ion batteries. Sci China Tech Sci, 2013, 56: 2630-2635 CrossRef Google Scholar

[26] Huang J Y. In situ observation of quasimelting of diamond and reversible graphite−diamond phase transformations. Nano Lett, 2007, 7: 2335-2340 CrossRef Google Scholar

[27] Luthin J, Linsmeier C. Carbon films and carbide formation on tungsten. Surf Sci, 2000, 454–456: 78–82. Google Scholar

[28] Wang M S, Golberg D, Bando Y. Interface dynamic behavior between a carbon nanotube and metal electrode. Adv Mat, 2010, 22: 93-98 CrossRef Google Scholar

[29] Andrews M R. Production and characteristics of the carbides of tungsten. J Phys Chem, 1922, 27: 270-283 CrossRef Google Scholar

[30] Andrews M R. Diffusion of carbon through tungsten and tungsten carbide. J Phys Chem, 1924, 29: 462-472 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Tersoff J. Enhanced solubility of impurities and enhanced diffusion near crystal surfaces. Phys Rev Lett, 1995, 74: 5080-5083 CrossRef Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    Experimental setup and TEM image of the graphene-metal junction. (a) The in-situ TEM experiment setup; (b) corresponding image of (a).

  • Figure 2

    In-situ Joule heating-induced structural change of the W-FLG interface. (a), (b) The pristine W-FLG interface (a) and the electron diffraction pattern (EDP) of the W tip in (a). (c)–(e) The morphology (c), EDP (d) and high-resolution TEM image in the interface after Joule heating. (f) The corresponding I-V curves before (a) and after (c) the Joule heating-induced structural change.

  • Figure 3

    The structure information of the final tip after Joule heating in Supporting Movie 1. (b) The low magnification picture of the tip. (a), (d), (e) The corresponding EDP pattern of areas 1–3 in (b). (c) The lattice image of the surface of the tip. (f) A model showing the structure of the tip.

  • Figure 4

    The layer-by-layer growth process of graphite at the surface of the tip.

Copyright 2020  CHINA SCIENCE PUBLISHING & MEDIA LTD.  中国科技出版传媒股份有限公司  版权所有

京ICP备14028887号-23       京公网安备11010102003388号