logo

SCIENCE CHINA Technological Sciences, Volume 60 , Issue 5 : 658-667(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-016-9034-6

An overview of the mission and technical characteristics of Change’4 Lunar Probe

More info
  • ReceivedDec 27, 2016
  • AcceptedMar 10, 2017
  • PublishedApr 17, 2017

Abstract

Change’4 Lunar Probe will softly land on the farside of the Moon for the first time of all mankind and carry out in-situ and rovering exploration. In this paper, the scientific significance and engineering difficulties of Change’4 are introduced and the probe’s general design, including the aspects of landing site selection, relay communication, trajectory design of relay satellite is explained. Besides, four key technologies, namely safe landing strategy on complex terrain, orbit design and control of libration point 2, relay communication on L2, radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and electric-thermal utilization, as well as how to realize them are also discussed. Finally the prospect of the prominent technological breakthrough of Change’4 is described.


References

[1] Kring D, Durda D. A global Lunar landing site study to provide the scientific context for exploration of the Moon. LPI-JSC Center for Lunar Science and Exploration, 2012. Google Scholar

[2] Jester S, Falcke H. Science with a lunar low-frequency array: From the dark ages of the Universe to nearby exoplanets. New Astron Rev, 2009, 53: 1-26 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[3] Alexander J K, Kaiser M L, Novaco J C, et al. Scientific instrumentation of the Radio-Astronomy-Explorer-2 satellite. Astronomy Astrophys, 1975, 40: 365–371. Google Scholar

[4] Wieczorek M, Mimoun D. FARSIDE A mission to the farside of the Moon. Technical Report. Institut de Physique Globe de Paris, 2015. Google Scholar

[5] Sun Z Z, Jia Y, Zhang H. Technological advancements and promotion roles of Chang’e-3 lunar probe mission. Sci China Tech Sci, 2013, 56: 2702-2708 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Hill K, Parker J, Born G, et al. A Lunar L2 navigation, communication and gravity mission. In: AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference and Exhibit. Keystone, Colorado, 2006. Google Scholar

[7] Farquhar R W. The utilization of halo orbits in advanced lunar operations. NASA Technical Report. Washington, 1971. Google Scholar

[8] Zarka P, Bougeret J L, Briand C, et al. Planetary and exoplanetary low frequency radio observations from the Moon. Planet Space Sci, 2012, 74: 156-166 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[9] Lucey P G, Taylor G J, Hawke B R, et al. FeO and TiO2 concentrations in the South Pole-Aitken basin: Implications for mantle composition and basin formation. J Geophys Res, 1998, 103: 3701-3708 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[10] National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Space Studies Board. Radioisotope Power Systems Committee Radioisotope Power Systems: An Imperative for Maintaining U.S. Leadership in Space Exploration. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2009. Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    Elevation diagram of South-Pole Aitken Basin.

  • Figure 2

    The topography of nearside and farside of the Moon.

  • Figure 3

    Relay communication link profile.

  • Figure 4

    Earth-Moon L2 orbit profile [7].

  • Figure 5

    Flight profile of relay satellite.

  • Figure 6

    Electromagnetic wave flux density of near-Moon space [8].

  • Figure 7

    The map of the Earth-Moon liberation points.

  • Table 1   Relay communication phases

    Phase

    Lander

    Luna rover

    Earth-Moon transfer

    Directly communicates with ground TT&C stations

    Idle

    Moon orbiting

    a) Directly communicates with ground TT&C stations;

    b) Test on relay communication link

    Idle

    Powered descent

    a) Telemetry and Telecommand data transmission with relay satellite;

    b) Return imaging data of landing camera via relay satellite

    Idle

    Working on Lunar surface

    TT&C and scientific exploration data transmission via relay satellite

    TT&C and scientific exploration data transmission via relay satellite

  • Table 2   Three transfer method

    Phase

    Perigee velocity at launch

    Time to reach L2

    Velocity impulse (theoretical) (m/s)

    Direct transfer

    Almost 10.9 km/s

    Short (almost 6–7 d)

    900–1000

    Lunar swing-by

    Short (almost 8–9 d)

    200–300

    Low-energy

    Long (almost 3 months–half a year)

    0–125

Copyright 2020  CHINA SCIENCE PUBLISHING & MEDIA LTD.  中国科技出版传媒股份有限公司  版权所有

京ICP备14028887号-23       京公网安备11010102003388号