SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 63 , Issue 10 : 202307(2020) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-019-2870-8

Theoretical and numerical analyses for PDM-IM signals using Stokes vectorreceivers

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  • ReceivedOct 8, 2019
  • AcceptedApr 13, 2020
  • PublishedSep 17, 2020


Different from current coherent-detection-based long-haul transmission systems, inter- and intra-datacenter transmissions require a simpler transmitter and receiver. A promising way to significantly meet the demands of datacenter transmission is polarization division multiplexing intensity modulation with direct detection (PDM-IM-DD) using a Stokes vector receiver (SVR). However, for different SVR architectures, the corresponding demultiplexing matrix is required to recover the Stokes vectors from the detected signals, which are combined with an arbitrary state of polarization (SOP), will change the effect of noise dynamically and significantly influence the system performance. In this study, PDM-IM signals using four SVRs, i.e., a $90^\circ~$ optical hybrid with 2 balanced photodetectors (BPDs) and 2 photodetectors (PDs), a $90^\circ~$ optical hybrid with 4 PDs, a Stokes analyzer and a 3 $\times$ 3 coupler with 4 PDs, are studied theoretically and numerically. Theoretical system models using the four SVRs are developed, and the noise power variations are analyzed quantitatively based on these models. Moreover, the performance of the systems is also investigated for 224 Gbit/s polarization division multiplexing pulse amplitude modulation 4 level with direct detection (PDM-PAM4-DD) transmission in a simulation. The simulation results show that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the systems is consistent with the theoretical noise power variation curves. The theoretical analysis scheme is helpful for the practical design of SVR-based systems.


This work was supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2019YFB1803905), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61671053, 61871030), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. FRF-TP-19-017A1), State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems Networks, China, the Open Fund of IPOC (BUPT) (Grant No. IPOC2018B009), Foundation of Beijing Engineering and Technology Center for Convergence Networks and Ubiquitous Services, and Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Grant Nos. 1-ZVGB, G-SB65, 4-BCCK).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Structures of the SVRs. (a) Receiver A: $90^\circ~$ optical hybrid with 2 BPDs and 2 PDs. (b) Receiver B: $90^\circ~$ optical hybrid with 4 PDs. (c) Receiver C: Stokes analyzer. (d) Receiver D: 3 $\times$ 3 coupler with 4 PDs.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Normalized noise power vs. the SOP rotation angle of PDM-IM signals in different SVRs. protectłinebreak (a) Receiver A, (b) receiver B, (c) receiver C and (d) receiver D.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Simulation setup for the 224 Gbit/s PDM-PAM4-DD system. PBS: polarization beam splitter. IM: intensity modulator. PBC: polarization beam combiner. SSMF: standard single-mode fiber. VOA: variable optical attenuator.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) BER performance as a function of the SOP angles for 224 Gbit/s PDM-PAM4 signal detection using different SVRs. (a) Receiver A, (b) receiver B, (c) receiver C, and (d) receiver D.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Simulation results of the BER vs. ROP at the best and worst SOP angles for 224 Gbit/s PDM-PAM4 signals. (a) Receiver A, (b) receiver B, (c) receiver C, and (d) receiver D.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Simulation results of 224 Gbit/s PDM-PAM4 signals after C band 2 km transmission for different SVRs.

  • Table 1  

    Table 1General simulation parameters of 224 Gbit/s PDM-PAM4-DD systems

    Parameter Value Parameter Value
    Wavelength 1310 nm Laser Linewidth 10 MHz
    DAC/ADC resolution 8 bit Laser RIN $-160$ dB/Hz
    Baud rate 56 Gbaud PD responsibility 0.65 A/W
    Tx bandwidth (3 dB) 25 GHz PD dark current 10 nA
    Rx bandwidth (3 dB) 35 GHz PD thermal noise 20 pA/Hz
    IL of $90^\circ~$ optical hybrid 1.2 dB IL of coupler 0.15 dB
    IL of polarizer 0.2 dB IL of PBS 0.5 dB
  • Table 2  

    Table 2Comparison of 224 Gbit/s PDM-PAM4 signals with different SVRs

    SVR scheme Main devices Noise fluctuation System performance Receiver sensitivity
    (@ different SOP) variation (@7% FEC) (dBm)
    (@ fixed ROP) (dB)
    2*Receiver A $\frac{{\gamma~~=~0.5}}{{\gamma~~=~0.7}}$ 1 hybrid+ 2 Medium 1.7 $-3.5$
    BPDs+2 PDs Low 0.2 $-3.2$
    Receiver B 1 hybrid+4 PDs High 2.7 $-2.8$
    2*Receiver C 1 wave plate+3
    polarizers+4 PDs
    2*Receiver D 1 2$\times$2 coupler +1
    3$\times$3 coupler+4 PDs

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