logo

SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 2 : 120301(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-020-2852-1

Ultra-reliable and low-latency communications: applications, opportunities and challenges

More info
  • ReceivedJan 15, 2020
  • AcceptedMar 24, 2020
  • PublishedJan 20, 2021

Abstract


References

[1] K. Campbell, L. Cruz, B. Flanagan, et al. The 5G Economy: How 5G will contribute to the global economy. IHS Markit Report, Nov. 2019. Google Scholar

[2] Parvez I, Rahmati A, Guvenc I. A Survey on Low Latency Towards 5G: RAN, Core Network and Caching Solutions. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials, 2018, 20: 3098-3130 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Sutton G J, Zeng J, Liu R P. Enabling Technologies for Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications: From PHY and MAC Layer Perspectives. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials, 2019, 21: 2488-2524 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Feng D, She C, Ying K. Toward Ultrareliable Low-Latency Communications: Typical Scenarios, Possible Solutions, and Open Issues. IEEE Veh Technol Mag, 2019, 14: 94-102 CrossRef Google Scholar

[5] Popovski P, Nielsen J J, Stefanovic C. Wireless Access for Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication: Principles and Building Blocks. IEEE Network, 2018, 32: 16-23 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] She C, Dong R, Gu Z, et al. Deep Learning for Ultra-Relible and Low-Latency Communications in 6G Network. 2020,. arXiv Google Scholar

[7] Hampel G, Li C, Li J. 5G Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications in Factory Automation Leveraging Licensed and Unlicensed Bands. IEEE Commun Mag, 2019, 57: 117-123 CrossRef Google Scholar

[8] Chen H, Abbas R, Cheng P. Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Cellular Networks: Use Cases, Challenges and Approaches. IEEE Commun Mag, 2018, 56: 119-125 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Ge X. Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications in Autonomous Vehicular Networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol, 2019, 68: 5005-5016 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Sukhmani S, Sadeghi M, Erol-Kantarci M. Edge Caching and Computing in 5G for Mobile AR/VR and Tactile Internet. IEEE MultiMedia, 2019, 26: 21-30 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] L. Zhu L. Feng Z. Yang et al. Priority-based uRLLC Uplink Resource Scheduling for Smart Grid Neighborhood Area Network In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI) 2019. 510--515. Google Scholar

[12] Study on physical layer enhancements for NR ultra-reliable and low latency case (URLLC. 3rd Generation Partnership Project, Sophia Antipolis, France, Rep. TR 38.824 V1.1.0, Release 16, 2019. Google Scholar

[13] Bennis M, Debbah M, Poor H V. Ultrareliable and Low-Latency Wireless Communication: Tail, Risk, and Scale. Proc IEEE, 2018, 106: 1834-1853 CrossRef Google Scholar

[14] Zhong Y, Ge X, Yang H H. Traffic Matching in 5G Ultra-Dense Networks. IEEE Commun Mag, 2018, 56: 100-105 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] She C, Yang C, Quek T Q S. Cross-Layer Optimization for Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Radio Access Networks. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun, 2018, 17: 127-141 CrossRef Google Scholar

[16] Nasrallah A, Thyagaturu A S, Alharbi Z. Ultra-Low Latency (ULL) Networks: The IEEE TSN and IETF DetNet Standards and Related 5G ULL Research. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials, 2019, 21: 88-145 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Jiang X, Shokri-Ghadikolaei H, Fodor G. Low-Latency Networking: Where Latency Lurks and How to Tame It. Proc IEEE, 2019, 107: 280-306 CrossRef Google Scholar

[18] Singh B, Tirkkonen O, Li Z. Contention-Based Access for Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Uplink Transmissions. IEEE Wireless Commun Lett, 2018, 7: 182-185 CrossRef Google Scholar

[19] N. H. Mahmood R. Abreu R. Bohnke et al. Uplink Grant-Free Access Solutions for URLLC services in 5G New Radio. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS), 2019. 607--612. Google Scholar

[20] Feng D, Lu L, Yuan-Wu Y. Device-to-Device Communications Underlaying Cellular Networks. IEEE Trans Commun, 2013, 61: 3541-3551 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] D. Feng, L. Lu, Y. YuanWu, G. Li, S. Li, and G. Feng. Device-to-device communications in cellular networks. IEEE Communications Magazine 2014, 52: 49--55. Google Scholar

[22] C. She and C. Yang. Available Range of Different Transmission Modes for Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications. In: Proceedings of IEEE 85th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2017. 1--5. Google Scholar

[23] Liu L, Yu W. A D2D-Based Protocol for Ultra-Reliable Wireless Communications for Industrial Automation. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun, 2018, 17: 5045-5058 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] S. R. Panigrahi N. Bjorsell and M. Bengtsson. Feasibility of Large Antenna Arrays towards Low Latency Ultra Reliable Communication. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT) 2017. 1289--1294. Google Scholar

[25] Vu T K, Liu C F, Bennis M. Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communication in mmWave-Enabled Massive MIMO Networks. IEEE Commun Lett, 2017, 21: 2041-2044 CrossRef Google Scholar

[26] Zeng J, Lv T, Liu R P. Linear Minimum Error Probability Detection for Massive MU-MIMO With Imperfect CSI in URLLC. IEEE Trans Veh Technol, 2019, 68: 11384-11388 CrossRef Google Scholar

[27] Li J, Han Y. Optimal Resource Allocation for Packet Delay Minimization in Multi-Layer UAV Networks. IEEE Commun Lett, 2017, 21: 580-583 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Pan C, Ren H, Deng Y. Joint Blocklength and Location Optimization for URLLC-Enabled UAV Relay Systems. IEEE Commun Lett, 2019, 23: 498-501 CrossRef Google Scholar

[29] C. She C. Liu T. Q. S. Quek et al. UAV-Assisted Uplink Transmission for Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops) 2018. 1--6. Google Scholar

[30] Zhong Y, Quek T Q S, Ge X. Heterogeneous Cellular Networks With Spatio-Temporal Traffic: Delay Analysis and Scheduling. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun, 2017, 35: 1373-1386 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Zhong Y, Ge X, Han T. Tradeoff Between Delay and Physical Layer Security in Wireless Networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun, 2018, 36: 1635-1647 CrossRef Google Scholar

[32] She C, Chen Z, Yang C. Improving Network Availability of Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communications With Multi-Connectivity. IEEE Trans Commun, 2018, 66: 5482-5496 CrossRef Google Scholar

[33] Suer M T, Thein C, Tchouankem H. Multi-Connectivity as an Enabler for Reliable Low Latency Communications-An Overview. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials, 2020, 22: 156-169 CrossRef Google Scholar

[34] Zhang T, Xu X, Le Zhou X. Cache Space Efficient Caching Scheme for Content-Centric Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. IEEE Syst J, 2019, 13: 530-541 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[35] Yu Q, Maddah-Ali M A, Avestimehr A S. Characterizing the Rate-Memory Tradeoff in Cache Networks Within a Factor of 2. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 2019, 65: 647-663 CrossRef Google Scholar

[36] Aggarwal V, Chen Y F R, Lan T. Sprout: A Functional Caching Approach to Minimize Service Latency in Erasure-Coded Storage. IEEE/ACM Trans Networking, 2017, 25: 3683-3694 CrossRef Google Scholar

[37] Zhong Y, Wang G, Han T. QoE and Cost for Wireless Networks With Mobility Under Spatio-Temporal Traffic. IEEE Access, 2019, 7: 47206-47220 CrossRef Google Scholar

[38] S. Kaul R. Yates and M. Gruteser. Real-Time Status: How Often Should One Update? . In: Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Orlando, 2012. 2731--2735. Google Scholar

[39]

[40] S. K. Kaul R. D. Yates and M. Gruteser. Status Updates Through Queues. In: Proceedings of 46th Annual Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS) 2012. 1--6. Google Scholar

[41] R. D. Yates and S. Kaul. Real-Time Status Updating: Multiple Sources. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) Cambridge, 2012. 2666--2670. Google Scholar

[42] C. Kam S. Kompella and A. Ephremides. Age of Information Under Random Updates. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) Istanbul, 2013. 66--70. Google Scholar

[43] M. Costa M. Codreanu and A. Ephremides. Age of Information with Packet Management. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) Honolulu, 2014. 1583--1587. Google Scholar

[44] M. Costa M. Codreanu and A. Ephremides. On the Age of Information in Status Update Systems With Packet Management. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2016, 62: 1897--1910. Google Scholar

[45] C. Kam S. Kompella G. D. Nguyen et al. Controlling the Age of Information: Buffer Size, Deadline, and Packet Replacement. In: Proceedings of IEEE Military Communications Conference Baltimore, 2016. 301--306. Google Scholar

[46] L. Huang and E. Modiano. Optimizing Age-of-Information in a Multi-class Queueing System. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) Hong Kong, 2015. 1681--1685. Google Scholar

[47] K. Chen and L. Huang. Age-of-Information in the Presence of Error. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) Barcelona, 2016. 2579--2583. Google Scholar

[48] Q. He D. Yuan and A. Ephremides. On Optimal Link Scheduling with Min-Max Peak Age of Information in Wireless Systems. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) 2016. 1--7. Google Scholar

[49] Barakat B, Keates S, Wassell I. Is the Zero-Wait Policy Always Optimum for Information Freshness (Peak Age) or Throughput?. IEEE Commun Lett, 2019, 23: 987-990 CrossRef Google Scholar

[50] A. M. Bedewy Y. Sun and N. B. Shroff. Age-Optimal Information Updates in Multihop Networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) Aachen, 2017. 576--580. Google Scholar

[51] Xu C, Yang H H, Wang X. Optimizing Information Freshness in Computing-Enabled IoT Networks. IEEE Internet Things J, 2020, 7: 971-985 CrossRef Google Scholar

[52] I. Kadota E. Uysal-Biyikoglu R. Singh et al. Minimizing the Age of Information in Broadcast Wireless Networks. In: Proceedings of the 54th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton) 2016. 844--851. Google Scholar

[53] A. Arafa and S. Ulukus. Age-Minimal Transmission in Energy Harvesting Two-Hop Networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) Singapore, 2017. 1--6. Google Scholar

[54] Y. Hu Y. Zhong and W. Zhang. Age of Information in Poisson Networks. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP) Hangzhou, 2018. 1-6. Google Scholar

[55] Krikidis I. Average Age of Information in Wireless Powered Sensor Networks. IEEE Wireless Commun Lett, 2019, 8: 628-631 CrossRef Google Scholar

[56] B. T. Bacinoglu E. T. Ceran and E. Uysal-Biyikoglu. Age of Information under Energy Replenishment Constraints. In: Proceedings of Information Theory and Applications Workshop (ITA) San Diego, 2015. 25--31. Google Scholar

[57] R. D. Yates. Lazy is Timely: Status Updates by an Energy Harvesting Source. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) Hong Kong, 2015. 3008--3012. Google Scholar

[58] B. T. Bacinoglu and E. Uysal-Biyikoglu. Scheduling Status Updates to Minimize Age of Information with an Energy Harvesting Sensor. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) Aachen, 2017. 1122--1126. Google Scholar

[59] B. T. Bacinoglu Y. Sun E. Uysal-Bivikoglu and V. Mutlu. Achieving the Age-Energy Tradeoff with a Finite-Battery Energy Harvesting Source. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) Vail, 2018. 876-880. Google Scholar

[60] E. Sert C. Sonmez S. Baghaee and E. Uysal-Biyikoglu. Optimizing Age of Information on Real-Life TCP/IP Connections through Reinforcement Learning. In: Proceedings of the 26th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU) 2018. 1--4. Google Scholar

[61] Ceran E T, Gunduz D, Gyorgy A. Average Age of Information With Hybrid ARQ Under a Resource Constraint. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun, 2019, 18: 1900-1913 CrossRef Google Scholar

[62] Yates R D, Kaul S K. The Age of Information: Real-Time Status Updating by Multiple Sources. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 2019, 65: 1807-1827 CrossRef Google Scholar

[63] M. Bastopcu and S. Ulukus. Age of Information with Soft Updates. In: Proceedings of the 56th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton) Monticello, 2018. 378--385. Google Scholar

[64] S. Kaul M. Gruteser V. Rai and J. Kenney. Minimizing Age of Information in Vehicular Networks. In: Proceedings of the 8th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks Salt Lake City, 2011. 350--358. Google Scholar

[65] Q. He G. Dan and V. Fodor. Minimizing Age of Correlated Information for Wireless Camera Networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS) Honolulu,2018. 547--552. Google Scholar

[66] Sinha D, Roy R. Scheduling Status Update for Optimizing Age of Information in the Context of Industrial Cyber-Physical System. IEEE Access, 2019, 7: 95677-95695 CrossRef Google Scholar

[67] M. Wang and Y. Dong. Broadcast Age of Information in CSMA/CA Based Wireless Networks. In: Proceedings of 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC) Tangier, 2019. 1102--1107. Google Scholar

[68] H. B. Beytur S. Baghaee and E. Uysal. Measuring Age of Information on Real-Life Connections. In: Proceedings of 2019 27th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU) Sivas, 2019. 1--4. Google Scholar

[69] C. Sonmez S. Baghaee A. Ergisi et al. Age-of-Information in Practice: Status Age Measured Over TCP/IP Connections Through WiFi, Ethernet and LTE. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Black Sea Conference on Communications and Networking (BlackSeaCom) Batumi, 2018. 1--5. Google Scholar

[70] Hu C, Dong Y. Age of information of two-way data exchanging systems with power-splitting. J Commun Netw, 2019, 21: 295-306 CrossRef Google Scholar

[71] M. Moltafet M. Leinonen and M. Codreanu. Worst Case Analysis of Age of Information in a Shared-Access Channel. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS) Oulu, 2019. 613--617. Google Scholar

[72] S. Bhambay S. Poojary and P. Parag. Differential Encoding for Real-Time Status Updates. in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC) San Francisco, 2017. 1--6. Google Scholar

[73] G. D. Nguyen S. Kompella C. Kam et al. Impact of Hostile Interference on Information Freshness: A Game Approach. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOpt) Paris, 2017. 1--7. Google Scholar

[74] Tang J, Shim B, Quek T Q S. Service Multiplexing and Revenue Maximization in Sliced C-RAN Incorporated With URLLC and Multicast eMBB. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun, 2019, 37: 881-895 CrossRef Google Scholar

[75] A. Anand G. Veciana and S. Shakkottai. Joint scheduling of URLLC and eMBB traffic in 5G wireless networks. In: Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM, Honolulu, 2018. 1970--1978. Google Scholar

[76] Cao B, Zhang L, Li Y. Intelligent Offloading in Multi-Access Edge Computing: A State-of-the-Art Review and Framework. IEEE Commun Mag, 2019, 57: 56-62 CrossRef Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Applications and network architecture of URLLC.

  • Table 1  

    Table 1The requirements of mission-critical services in URLLC

    Mission-critical services E2E latency (ms) Reliability (%)
    Industrial automation 0.25–10 99.9999999
    Remote healthcare $<30$ 99.999
    Intelligent transportation 1–100 99.9999
    AR/VR 0.4–20 99.999
    Smart grid3–20 99.999
  • Table 2  

    Table 24G-LTE vs. URLLC

    4G-LTE URLLC in 5G and beyond
    BLER $10^{-1}$ $10^{-5}-10^{-9}$
    End-to-end latency 30–100 ms Several milliseconds
    User plane latency 4 ms range At most 1 ms
    Packet sizes $\gg$ 100 bytes Tens to hundreds of bytes
    TTI 1 ms No more than 0.2–0.25 ms