SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 4 : 142402(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-020-2960-x

A bidirectional threshold switching selector with a symmetric multilayer structure

More info
  • ReceivedMay 3, 2020
  • AcceptedJun 18, 2020
  • PublishedNov 23, 2020



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61604177, 61704191, 61471377).


[1] Lastras-Monta?o M A, Cheng K T. Resistive random-access memory based on ratioed memristors. Nat Electron, 2018, 1: 466-472 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] Lee S, Song J, Seong C, et al. Full chip integration of 3-d cross-point ReRAM with leakage-compensating write driver and disturbance-aware sense amplifier. In: Proceedings of Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers, Honolulu, 2016. Google Scholar

[3] Li Y, Long S, Liu Q. Resistive Switching Performance Improvement via Modulating Nanoscale Conductive Filament, Involving the Application of Two-Dimensional Layered Materials. Small, 2017, 13: 1604306 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Yao P, Wu H, Gao B. Fully hardware-implemented memristor convolutional neural network. Nature, 2020, 577: 641-646 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[5] Zidan M A, Jeong Y J, Lee J. A general memristor-based partial differential equation solver. Nat Electron, 2018, 1: 411-420 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Nili H, Adam G C, Hoskins B. Hardware-intrinsic security primitives enabled by analogue state and nonlinear conductance variations in integrated memristors. Nat Electron, 2018, 1: 197-202 CrossRef Google Scholar

[7] Sun Z, Pedretti G, Bricalli A. One-step regression and classification with cross-point resistive memory arrays. Sci Adv, 2020, 6: eaay2378 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[8] Chen A. Accessibility of nano-crossbar arrays of resistive switching devices. In: Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, Portland, 2011. Google Scholar

[9] Chen A, Lin M R. Variability of resistive switching memories and its impact on crossbar array performance. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, Monterey, 2011. Google Scholar

[10] Gao S, Zeng F, Wang M. Implementation of Complete Boolean Logic Functions in Single Complementary Resistive Switch. Sci Rep, 2015, 5: 15467 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[11] Gao S, Zeng F, Li F. Forming-free and self-rectifying resistive switching of the simple Pt/TaOx/n-Si structure for access device-free high-density memory application. Nanoscale, 2015, 7: 6031-6038 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[12] Chen F T, Chen Y S, Wu T Y. Write Scheme Allowing Reduced LRS Nonlinearity Requirement in a 3D-RRAM Array With Selector-Less 1TNR Architecture. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2014, 35: 223-225 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[13] Chasin A, Zhang L, Bhoolokam A. High-Performance a-IGZO Thin Film Diode as Selector for Cross-Point Memory Application. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2014, 35: 642-644 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[14] Burr G W, Shenoy R S, Virwani K. Access devices for 3D crosspoint memory. J Vacuum Sci Tech B Nanotechnol MicroElectron-Mater Processing Measurement Phenomena, 2014, 32: 040802 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] Huang C H, Matsuzaki K, Nomura K. Threshold switching of non-stoichiometric CuO nanowire for selector application. Appl Phys Lett, 2020, 116: 023503 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[16] Lee T H, Kang D Y, Kim T G. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10: 33768-33772 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Song B, Xu H, Liu S. An ovonic threshold switching selector based on Se-rich GeSe chalcogenide. Appl Phys A, 2019, 125: 772-6 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[18] Noé P, Verdy A, d'Acapito F. Toward ultimate nonvolatile resistive memories: The mechanism behind ovonic threshold switching revealed. Sci Adv, 2020, 6: eaay2830 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[19] Saitoh S, Kinoshita K. Oxide-based selector with trap-filling-controlled threshold switching. Appl Phys Lett, 2020, 116: 112101 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[20] Chen A, Ma G, Zhang Z. Multi?Functional Controllable Memory Devices Applied for 3D Integration Based on a Single Niobium Oxide Layer. Adv Electron Mater, 2020, 6: 1900756 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] Song B, Xu H, Liu S. Threshold Switching Behavior of Ag-SiTe-Based Selector Device and Annealing Effect on its Characteristics. IEEE J Electron Devices Soc, 2018, 6: 674-679 CrossRef Google Scholar

[22] Song B, Cao R, Xu H. A HfO2/SiTe Based Dual-Layer Selector Device with Minor Threshold Voltage Variation. Nanomaterials, 2019, 9: 408 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Song J, Park J, Moon K, et al. Monolithic integration of AgTe/TiO2 based threshold switching device with TiN liner for steep slope field-effect transistor. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, San Francisco, 2016. Google Scholar

[24] Zhang L, Cosemans S, Wouters D J. One-Selector One-Resistor Cross-Point Array With Threshold Switching Selector. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2015, 62: 3250-3257 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[25] Song B, Xu H, Liu H. Impact of threshold voltage variation on 1S1R crossbar array with threshold switching selectors. Appl Phys A, 2017, 123: 356 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[26] Liu S, Lu N, Zhao X. Eliminating Negative-SET Behavior by Suppressing Nanofilament Overgrowth in Cation-Based Memory. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 10623-10629 CrossRef Google Scholar

[27] Zaffora A, Cho D Y, Lee K S. Electrochemical Tantalum Oxide for Resistive Switching Memories. Adv Mater, 2017, 29: 1703357 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Zhao X, Ma J, Xiao X. Breaking the Current-Retention Dilemma in Cation-Based Resistive Switching Devices Utilizing Graphene with Controlled Defects. Adv Mater, 2018, 30: 1705193 CrossRef Google Scholar

[29] Ji X, Song L, He W. Super Nonlinear Electrodeposition-Diffusion-Controlled Thin-Film Selector. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10: 10165-10172 CrossRef Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Schematic of the fabrication process. First, the bottom Ag electrode was patterned and grown on a Si substrate with SiO$_{2}$ via ion sputtering (a). SiTe and HfO$_{2}$ were grown over the bottom layer using magnetron sputtering and atomic layer deposition, and the samples were then annealed (b). The bottom electrode was removed by etching (c), and subsequently, the top electrode was grown (d). (e) presents a structural schematic of the as-fabricated device.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) DC sweep characteristics. (a) Bidirectional threshold switching phenomena under various compliance currents. (b) Volatile threshold switching with high selectivity. (c) Low switching slope. (d) DC stress test under a 0.2-V bias.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Transient tests. (a) Positive pulse test with a 2-$\mu$s delay before threshold switching. (b) Negative pulse test with a 3-$\mu$s delay before switching. (c) Double-pulse test in which the device turns on and off.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Endurance test. (a) DC sweep of 100 cycles with threshold switching in both polarities. (b) Cumulative probability of the threshold voltage and hold voltage in DC sweeps. (c) A total of 10$^{6}$ pulse tests with a large on/off resistance difference. (d) A 10-M$\Omega~$ resistor test with the same pulse applied in the selector test.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Mechanism analysis. (a) Initial state with a few Ag atoms doped during fabrication. (b) Conductive filaments are formed when a voltage is applied, and the filaments automatically rupture after the voltage is removed, with only a small gap remaining. (c) Residual filaments provide a preferred path for filament reformation when a voltage is applied again.protect łinebreak (d) Ag atoms return to the minimum interfacial energy position after the voltage is removed, and filaments in the SiTe layer near the interface rupture.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) DC characteristics for 1R (a) and 1S1R (b). The cell current is suppressed by the selector when the voltage is lower than the threshold voltage.