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Hydrothermal synthesis of coherent porous V2O3/carbon nanocomposites for high-performance lithium- and sodium-ion batteries

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  • ReceivedMar 31, 2017
  • AcceptedMay 23, 2017
  • PublishedJul 6, 2017

Abstract

Carbonaceous composite materials have been extensively studied in energy storage and conversion devices and commonly are fabricated from liquid precursors. In this work, we reported an unusual formation of vanadium oxide and carbon nanocomposite from microsized VO2 microspheres through a “dissolution and recrystallization” process with the assistance of LiH2PO4. The obtained vanadium oxides nanoparticles are in uniform distribution in the carbon matrix. The V2O3/carbon composite inherits the porous feature of the Ketjen black (KB) carbon and has a surface area of 76.59 m2 g−1. As an anode material for lithium/sodium-ion batteries, the V2O3/carbon nanocomposites exhibit higher capacity, better rate capability and cycling stability than the V2O3 nanoparticle counterparts. The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the porous V2O3/carbon nanocomposites, which can allow the electrolyte penetration, shorten the ion diffusion distance and improve the electronic conductivity.


Funded by

National Natural Science Foundation of China(51302323)

Program for New Century Excellent Talents in the University(NCET-13-0594)

Research Fund for Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China(201301621200)

the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province

China(14JJ3018)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51302323), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in the University (NCET-13-0594), the Research Fund for Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (201301621200), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (14JJ3018).


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

An X and Wang Y participated in the experiment and wrote the article. Yang H participated in the experiment and drew the scheme and figures. Pan A and Cao G conceived and supervised the project and revised the manuscript. All authors contributed to the general discussion.


Author information

Xinxin An is a postgraduate student in Prof. Pan’s Group and will receive her MSc degree from the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University in June 2017. Her current research interest is the vanadium-based electrode material for lithium ion battery.


Hulin Yang is a postgraduate student in Prof. Pan’s Group will receive his MSc degree from the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University in 2018. His current research interest is the tin sulfide hollow microsphere for anode of lithium ion battery.


Anqiang Pan received his PhD degree (2011) from Central South University. He joined Prof. Guozhong Cao’s group at the University of Washington as a visiting student in 2008. Then, he worked at PNNL as a visiting scholar in Drs. Ji-Guang Zhang and Jun Liu’s group (2009–2011). He joined Prof. Xiongwen (David) Lou’s group at Nanyang Technological University as a research fellow (2011-2012). Currently, he is a Sheng-Hua Professor at Central South University. His current interests are on the lithium/sodium ion batteries, and supercapacitors.


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  • Figure 1

    (a) XRD patterns of the precursor of V2O3/carbon nanocomposites. SEM images of the vanadium oxide prepared from different hydrothermal solution (b) without and (c) with LiH2PO4. (d) SEM images of the precursor of V2O3/carbon nanocomposites.

  • Scheme 1

    The illustration of the formation of V2O3/carbon nanocomposites.

  • Figure 2

    (a) XRD patterns of the V2O3/carbon nanocomposites and the pure V2O3 nanoparticles. (b) XRD pattern with Rietveld refinement of the V2O3/carbon nanocomposites. (c) SEM of the pure V2O3 nanoparticles. (d) SEM of the V2O3/carbon nanocomposites. (e) TEM, (f) HRTEM and (g) STEM-high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) image and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) elemental mapping images of V2O3/carbon nanocomposites.

  • Figure 3

    (a) Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and (b) pore size distribution of the V2O3/carbon nanocomposites and V2O3 nanoparticles.

  • Figure 4

    (a) Raman spectrum of the V2O3/carbon nanocomposites. (b) TG and DSC curves of the V2O3/carbon nanocomposites.

  • Figure 5

    Electrochemical lithium storage performance of the V2O3/carbon nanocomposites, pure V2O3 particles and KB carbon in the window of 0.01–3V (vs. Li/Li+). (a) Cycling performance of the three electrode materials at a current density of 100 mA g−1. (b) Galvanostatic discharge/charge curves for the 5th, 10th, 50th, 100th and 200th cycles at 100 mA g−1. (c) Rate performance of the V2O3/carbon nanocomposites and pure V2O3 particles.

  • Figure 6

    Electrochemical sodium storage performance of the V2O3/carbon nanocomposites, V2O3 particles and KB carbon in the voltage range of 0.01–3 V (vs. Na/Na+). (a) Cycling performance at a current density of 100 mA g−1. (b) Galvanostatic discharge/charge curves for the 2nd, 5th, 10th, 50th and 100th cycles at 100 mA g−1. (c) Rate performance of the two electrode materials. (d) Cycling performance at a current density of 1000 mA g−1.

  • Figure 7

    Nyquist plots of the V2O3 and V2O3/carbon nanocomposites as anodes for NIBs and their simulation model for the calculation.

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