Structure and electrochemical performance of BaLi2xNaxTi6O14 (0≤x≤2) as anode materials for lithium-ion battery

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  • ReceivedMay 24, 2017
  • AcceptedJun 16, 2017
  • PublishedJul 21, 2017


A series of BaLi2xNaxTi6O14 (0≤x≤2) compounds as lithium storage materials were synthesized by a facile solid-state method. X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement shows that the Bragg positions correspond to the BaLi2Ti6O14, indicating a successful preparation. The Na+ ions doped BaLi2-Ti6O14 compounds have larger unit-cell volume than the pristine one because ionic radius of Na+ ion is 55% larger than that of Li+ ion. SEM shows that the BaLi2xNaxTi6O14 (x=0, 0.5 and 1) powders show similar irregular shaped particles between 500 and 1000 nm. However, BaLi2xNaxTi6O14 (x=1.5 and 2) powders show similar rod-like shape. CV reveals that the passivating film is mainly formed during the first insertion process, and the solid electrolyte interface film on the surface of BaLi2xNaxTi6O14 (0≤x≤2) is formed below 0.7 V in the first cycle. Compared with other samples, BaLi0.5Na1.5Ti6O14 exhibits higher reversible capacity, better rate capability and superior cyclability. BaLi0.5Na1.5Ti6O14 delivers the delithiation capacities of 162.1 mA h g−1 at 50 mA g−1, 158.1 mA h g−1 at 100 mA g−1, 156.7 mA h g−1 at 150 mA g−1, 152.2 mA h g−1 at 200 mA g−1, 147.3 mA h g−1 at 250 mA g−1 and 142 mA h g−1 at 300 mA g−1, respectively. An interesting thing is that BaNa2Ti6O14 as anode also shows an acceptable electrochemical performance. All these improved electrochemical performances of BaLi0.5Na1.5Ti6O14 are attributed to the lowest polarization and the highest lithium ion diffusion coefficient among all samples. Hence, BaLi0.5Na1.5Ti6O14 with excellent cycling performance, simple synthesis route and wide discharge voltage range can be a possible anode candidate for lithium-ion batteries.

Funded by

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51404002)

Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation(1508085MB25)

Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province(2016A030310127)

Anhui Provincial Science Fund for Excellent Young Scholars(gxyqZD2016066)


This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51404002), Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation (1508085MB25), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2016A030310127) and Anhui Provincial Science Fund for Excellent Young Scholars (gxyqZD2016066).

Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

Tao W, Xu ML performed the materials synthesis, characterization and electrochemical measurements. Zhang Q was involved in data analysis and discussion. Yi TF and Zhu YR conceived the strategy, supervised the design of experiments, and wrote the manuscript, and all authors participated in the general discussion.

Author information

Wei Tao received his BE degree from Anhui University of Technology in 2015. He is now a second year Master student in Prof. Ting-Feng Yi's group at Anhui University of Technology. His research focuses on the application of functional materials in lithium-ion batteries.

Qianyu Zhang received his PhD degree from Fudan University, China. He was a visiting scholar at the University of California, San Diego from 2013 to 2014. He worked as an assistant researcher at Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences from 2015 to 2017. Currently, he is an associate professor at Dongguan University of Technology, China. His research involves exploring high-performance electrode materials for Li-ion battery.

Ting-Feng Yi received his BE degree in chemical engineering and technology from Liaocheng University in 2001. He then obtained his MSc degree in applied chemistry in 2004 and PhD degree in chemical engineering and technology from Harbin Institute of Technology in 2007. He joined Anhui University of Technology as an assistant professor of chemistry in 2007. He is currently a professor of Anhui University of Technology, China. His research interests include the synthesis of electrochemical functional materials and their application in lithium-ion battery, supercapacitor and lead-acid battery. For detail please see his research ID: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/F-4594-2012.


Supplementary information

The charge/discharge specific capacities of BaLi2xNaxTi6O14 (x=0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) samples at different cycle numbers are available in the online version of the paper.


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