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Recent progress on nanostructured conducting polymers and composites: synthesis, application and future aspects

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  • ReceivedNov 22, 2017
  • AcceptedJan 3, 2018
  • PublishedJan 30, 2018

Abstract

Conducting polymers (CPs) have been widely investigated due to their extraordinary advantages over the traditional materials, including wide and tunable electrical conductivity, facile production approach, high mechanical stability, light weight, low cost and ease in material processing. Compared with bulk CPs, nanostructured CPs possess higher electrical conductivity, larger surface area, superior electrochemical activity, which make them suitable for various applications. Hybridization of CPs with other nanomaterials has obtained promising functional nanocomposites and achieved improved performance in different areas, such as energy storage, sensors, energy harvesting and protection applications. In this review, recent progress on nanostructured CPs and their composites is summarized from research all over the world in more than 400 references, especially from the last three years. The relevant synthesizing experiences are outlined and abundant application examples are illustrated. The approaches of production of nanostructured CPs are discussed and the efficacy and benefits of newest trends for the preparation of multifunctional nanomaterials/nanocomposites are presented. Mechanism of their electrical conductivity and the ways to tailor their properties are investigated. The remaining challenges in developing better CPs based nanomaterials are also elaborated.


Funded by

This work was partially supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture

USDA and AU-IGP award.


Acknowledgment

This work was partially supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA and AU-IGP award.


Interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interests.


Contributions statement

Zhang L was responsible for sections (Introduction, Synthetic approaches to nanostructured conducting polymers, Strategies to fabricate advanced functional nanocomposites, Applications of conducting polymer nanocomposites (Energy Storage and conversion devices, Chemical sensors, Biosensors, Energy harvesting devices)), Du W contributed for sections (Applications of conducting polymer nanocomposites (Corrosion protection, Antistatic agent, Electromagnetic interference shielding)) and organized the references, Liu Z contributed for section (Strategies to fabricate advanced functional nanocomposites). Nautiyal A worked on all sections and tables. All authors involved in writing and refinement of the manuscript under the direction of Zhang X who revised the manuscript.


Author information

Lin Zhang received his BSc and MSc in Electronic Science and Technology at Xi’an Jiaotong University, China. He obtained his PhD degree in Materials Engineering at Auburn University, USA in 2013. From 2013 to 2017, he was postdoctoral research fellow in Materials Engineering at Auburn University and in NanoEngineering at UC San Diego. Dr. Zhang’s scientific interests include polymer-based dielectric composites, piezoelectric and ferroelectric ceramics, flexible/wearable devices, and green approaches to conducting polymer based nanocomposites. He joined the Department of Electronic Science and Technology at Xi’an Jiaotong University.


Xinyu Zhang studied in Chemistry Department at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) under the supervision of Professors Alan G. MacDiarmid and Sanjeev K. Manohar. After receiving his PhD degree in 2005, he started his postdoctoral stay at the University of Massachusetts Lowell. He started his career at Auburn University in 2008 in the Department of Polymer and Fiber Engineering. His research interests include the microwave approach to ultrafast production of nanomaterials, mechanism study of polymeric material self-assembly using the nanoseeding approach, chemical/electrochemical sensors, and polymer–metal nanocomposites. Currently, he is an Associate Professor in Chemical Engineering at Auburn University.


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  • Figure 1

    Chemical structures of representative conducting polymers.

  • Figure 2

    An overview of conducting polymers based nanocomposites and applications.

  • Figure 3

    (a) Growth mechanism of PEDOT nanostructures at lower oxidation potentials (<1.4 V): the predominance of electrochemically active sites on sharp electrode edges. Two base electrodes are considered: (left) annular and (right) flat-top electrodes. SEM images present the base electrode morphologies. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [50] (Copyright 2008, American Chemical Society). (b) Schematic depiction of PPy nanowires preparation by electrochemical polymerization with AAO as the template. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [49] (Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry).

  • Figure 4

    (a) Schematic of the microemulsion fabrication of polypyrrole hollow nanospheres and their carbon derivative. (b) TEM and SEM images of PPy nanoparticles and hollow spheres: (i) soluble polypyrrole nanoparticles; (ii) linear PPy core/shell nanoparticles; (iii) polypyrrole nanocapsules and (iv) carbon nanocapsules. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [54] (Copyright 2004, Royal Society of Chemistry). (c) Schematic of PPy nanotubes fabrication using reverse microemulsion polymerization, (d) TEM image of PPy nanotubes. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [55] (Copyright 2003, Royal Society of Chemistry).

  • Figure 5

    SEM images of (a) granular PPy·Cl (scale bar, 200 nm), (b) PPy·Cl nanoclips (scale bar, 1 µm; inset: digital picture of paper clips), (c) PANI·HCl nanoclips (scale bar, 1 µm), and (d) PEDOT·Cl nanoclips (scale bar, 1 µm). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [60] (Copyright 2010, American Chemical Society).

  • Figure 6

    SEM images of nanofibers synthesized by seeding the reaction: (a) PANI nanofibers by emeraldine·HCl nanofibers, (b) PANI nanofibers by HiPco SWNT, (c) PANI nanofibers by hexapeptide AcPHF6, (d) PANI nanofibers by V2O5 nanofibers. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [68] (Copyright 2004, American Chemical Society). (e) PPy nanofibers by V2O5 nanofibers. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [69] (Copyright 2004, American Chemical Society). (f) PEDOT nanofibers by V2O5 nanofibers (scale bar, 500 nm). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [70] (Copyright 2005, Royal Society of Chemistry).

  • Figure 7

    (a) Schematic of electrospinning. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [11] (Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry). (b) SEM images of electrospun PANI fibers (scale bar: 2 μm). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [77] (Copyright 2014, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  • Figure 8

    (a) Formation mechanism of the Pt NP@PPy NF structure. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [111] (Copyright 2013, Royal Society of Chemistry). SEM images of (b) PPy granules oxidized by PtCl2 without V2O5 seeds, (c) PPy/Au nanofiber composites from the V2O5/pyrrole/AuCl system, (d) PPy/Pt nanofiber composites from the V2O5/pyrrole/PtCl4 system, and (e) TEM image of PPy/Pt nanofiber composites from V2O5/pyrrole/PtCl4 (scale bar, 500 nm). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [108] (Copyright 2011, Royal Society of Chemistry).

  • Figure 9

    (a) Schematic of the design process of PANI/RuO2 core-shell nanofiber arrays on carbon cloth and (b) PANI/RuO2 core-shell nanofiber arrays with 500 ALD cycles of RuO2. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [122] (Copyright 2015, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). (c) Fabrication process of core-branch Fe2O3@PPy heterostructures, and (d) SEM image of honeycomb-like Fe2O3 nanoflakes@PPy nanoleaves. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [123] (Copyright 2016, Elsevier).

  • Figure 10

    Schematic illustration of the fabrication of: (a) MoS2@PANI architectures. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [127] (Copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) and (b) SnS2@PANI nanoplates. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [128] (Copyright 2014, Royal Society of Chemistry).

  • Figure 11

    (a) Schematic illustration of preparation of hollow composite fibers and formation of hollow structures, (b) and (c) cross-sectional SEM images of the hollow composite fibers at low and high magnifications, respectively, (d) and (e) SEM images of the hollow composite fibers by a side view at low and high magnifications, respectively. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [145] (Copyright 2016, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). (f) Schematic illustrations of the formation process of PANI/graphene paper, (g) photograph of a piece of the peeling-off graphene paper fabricated in a Teflon substrate. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [146] (Copyright 2013, Royal Society of Chemistry).

  • Figure 12

    (a) Schematic illustration of the synthesis process for nano porous carbon-PANI core-shell nanocomposite materials starting from a rhombic dodecahedron of ZIF-8. (b) SEM image of a carbon-PANI composite. (c) and (d) Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the carbon–PANI composite. (e) Comparative cyclic voltammetry studies of carbon, PANI, and carbon-PANI. (f) Variation of capacitance with scan rate for carbon, PANI and the carbon-PANI nanocomposite. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [220] (Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry).

  • Figure 13

    (a) Illustration of the encapsulation of carbon/sulfur particles with PEDOT:PSS for improving polysulfides encapsulation: carbon/sulfur particles without PEDOT:PSS coating and the polysulfides leak out of the carbon matrix during charge/discharge process. (b) With a PEDOT:PSS coating where the polysulfides are encapsulated within the composite and therefore lithium ions and electrons can move in and out. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [231] (Copyright 2011, American Chemical Society). (c) Schematic illustration of 3D porous SiNP/conductive polymer hydrogel composite electrodes. Each SiNP is encapsulated within a conductive polymer surface coating and is further connected to the highly porous hydrogel framework. (d) Lithiation/de-lithiation capacity and coulombic efficiency of SiNP-PANI electrode cycled at current density of 6 A g−1 for 5,000 cycles. (e) Galvanostatic charge/discharge profiles plotted for the 1st, 1000th, 2000th, 3000th and 4000th cycles. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [234] (Copyright 2013, Nature Publishing Group).

  • Figure 14

    SEM images of PVDF films with (a) fPANI = 0.050 and (b) fPANI = 0.060. Schematic images of the microstructure of PANI/PVDF films with (c) 0.042 < fPANI ≤ 0.050 and (d) 0.050 < fPANI ≤ 0.060. (e) Dependence of dielectric permittivity and DC breakdown field at room temperature. (f) The energy density of the PANI/PVDF films varies with different volume fraction of PANI. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [259] (Copyright 2010, Royal Society of Chemistry).

  • Figure 15

    (a) Synthetic route to PEDOT/Ag. (b) TEM image of PEDOT/Ag with 30 wt.% concentration of AgNO3. (c) The sensing performances and the sensitivity changes of pristine PEDOT NTs and Ag NPs/PEDOT NTs with 5, 10 and 30 wt.%. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [292] (Copyright 2011, The Royal Society of Chemistry). (d) and (e) Schematic of preparation and SEM of core-shell CeO2/PANI particles. (f) Response curves of CeO2/PANI (CPA4) and PANI to 50 ppm and CeO2 to 200 ppm and 2% ammonia. (g) Sensor stability of CeO2/PANI at room temperature. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [281] (Copyright 2014, American Chemical Society).

  • Figure 16

    Overview of the all-plastic-materials based self-charging power system. (a) Schedule of the integrated self-charging power system from 3-parallel TENG and 4-series supercapacitors (SC). (b) SEM image of hPPy, which is used as triboelectric electrode of TENG and electrode active material of supercapacitors, with its water-contacting angle shown in the up-right corner. (c) Brief mechanism of the TENG. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [345] (Copyright 2015, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  • Figure 17

    (a) Schematic illustration of the PANI/Te hybrid film processing, (b) electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor of PANI/Te films changing with different Te content at room temperature and changing with temperature with Te content 70 wt.%. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [352] (Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry). (c) Diagram of interactions in PPy/graphene/PANI composite, (d) Power factor of pure PPy, PANI, PPy/graphene composite, PANI/graphene composite, and PPy/graphene/PANI composite with 32 wt.% graphene at different temperatures. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [359] (Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society).

  • Figure 18

    Layer-structured PANI/Ag-NW composite film: (a) the schematic of preparation and (b) the EMI SE in the X-band frequency range. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [415] (Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry). PANI-aramid nanocomposite with hierarchical layering structure: (c) the schematic of preparation and (d) the EMI SE in the X-band frequency range. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [420] (Copyright 2017, Elsevier).

  • Table 1   Conductivity of common conducting polymers

    Conducting polymers

    Conductivity (S cm−1)

    Type of doping

    Polyaniline (PANI)

    30–200

    n, p

    Polypyrrole (PPy)

    10–7500

    p

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)

    0.4–400

    n, p

    Polythiophene (PT)

    10–1000

    p

    Polyacetylene (PA)

    200–1000

    n, p

    Polyparaphenylene (PPP)

    500

    n, p

    Polyparaphenylenesulfide (PPS)

    3–300

    p

    Polyparavinylene (PPv)

    1–1000

    p

    Polyisothionaphthene (PITN)

    1–50

    p

  • Table 2   Advantages and disadvantages of synthetic approaches

    Synthetic approaches

    Advantages

    Disadvantages

    Hard template

    Feasible for almost all CPs. The size and morphologyof CPs can be well controlled.

    Additional process to remove the template is required.

    Soft template

    A simple and inexpensive method. Synthesize NCPsin large quantities.

    Weak control the size and morphology of NCPs.

    Interfacial

    Simple and facile synthesis without template.

    Restrict to certain precursors.

    Seeding

    Synthesize NCPs in one-step rapidly with bulkquantities. The seeds play a dual role as both thetemplates and the reactive oxidants.

    Difficulty in fabricating hollow nanotubular structures.

    Electrospinning

    Simple method to synthesize CP nanofibers.

    Only available for soluble and thermoplastic CPs.

    Radiolysis

    Synthesize NCPs at room temperature and inambient pressure. The process is easily controlledand adaptable without inducing impurities.

    Weak control on the size and morphology of NCPs.Precise control of dose rate and time of radiolysis is required.

    Electrochemical assembly

    The size and morphology of NCPs can bewell controlled.

    Lacks a precise control in the morphologies anddimensions of NCPs.

    Soft lithography

    Low-cost, high-resolution and high-throughput.

    Expensive facilities are required.

  • Table 3   Synthesis and applications of selected CP/metal nanocomposites

    Conducting polymer

    Metal

    Preparation method

    Morphology

    Properties andapplication

    Ref

    PANI

    Au

    In situ oxidative polymerization of anilinewith gold nanoparticles

    Nanocomposite fibers

    Ammonia sensing

    [103]

    PANI

    Au

    One-pot oxidation using chloroauric acidas the oxidant

    Pseudo-sphericalstructure

    Immunosensor

    [100]

    PANI

    Au

    Water/toluene biphasic system using AuCl4as an oxidant

    Rodlike AuNPs embeddedin polymer

    Electrocatalyticperformance

    [104]

    PANI

    Au

    PANI shell grown on gold nanoparticlesvia in-situ polymerization

    Core-shell structurenanoparticles

    Asymmetric supercapacitor device

    [153]

    PANI

    Fe0

    Reductive deposition of nano-Fe0 ontothe PANI nanofibers

    Nanofibers with arough surface

    Adsorbent forremoval of arsenic

    [154]

    PANI

    Fe

    Fe was modified by silane and aniline waspolymerized

    Core-shell structurenanoparticles

    Exhibit excellentdielectric properties

    [155]

    PANI

    Cu

    In situ polymerization method to producepolymer and metal

    Multibranchingtree-like form

    High antimicrobial efficacy

    [156]

    PANI

    Pd

    Layer-by-layer electrodeposition

    Sandwich-structurednanotube array

    Electrocatalysts

    [157]

    PANI

    Pd

    Drop ascorbic acid in K2PdCl4/DMF withPANI/DMF solution

    Core-shell structurenanoparticles

    Selective catalysts

    [158]

    PPy

    Au

    Polymerize PPy hydrogel andelectrodeposited AuNPs

    AuNPs in 3D PPy hydrogel

    Sensitive amperometric biosensor

    [106]

    PPy

    Au

    Electro-polymerizing pyrrole on thenanoporous gold

    PPy coated onbicontinuous AuNPs

    Hybrid nanomaterial for actuation

    [159]

    PPy

    Ag

    Coat the incipient network via wetchemical route

    Coaxial nanowireaero-sponges

    Stress sensing and joule heating

    [160]

    PPy

    Ag

    One-pot UV-inducedphotopolymerization

    Dense structures inthe film plane

    /

    [161]

    PPy

    Pt

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone assist theself-assembly

    Intercalatednon-woven mesh

    Electrocatalyst for biosensing

    [111]

    PEDOT:PSS

    Au

    One-step microplasma assistedfabrication process

    Core-shell structures

    Fuel cell electrocatalytic application

    [162]

    PEDOT:PSS

    Ag

    Inkjet printing

    Ag grid onPEDOT:PSS layer

    Inkjet-printedsupercapacitors

    [163]

    POT

    Au/Cu

    Seeding polymerization reaction anda redox/complexation

    Web-like structure of pot with Au/Cu

    Non-enzymaticglucose sensors

    [109]

  • Table 4   Synthesis and applications of selected CP based nanocomposites with metal oxides and other inorganic compounds

    Conductingpolymer

    Inorganiccompounds

    Preparation method

    Morphology

    Properties andapplication

    Ref

    PANI

    TiO2

    Hydrothermal andelectropolymerization

    Core-shell nanorod array

    Electrochromic material

    [114]

    PANI

    ZnO

    Precipitation followed bysonication process

    ZnO embedded inPANI matrix

    Visible light photocatalytic

    [164]

    PANI

    CdO

    In diethylene glycol solution byoxidative polymerization

    Spherical and ellipticalnanoparticles

    Photocatalytical activity

    [117]

    PANI

    RuO2

    Atomic layer deposition

    Core-shell nanofiber arrays

    Highly stablepseudocapacitors

    [122]

    PANI

    Fe3O4/MnO2

    Solvothermal method andpolymerization

    Core-shell hybrids

    Adsorbents for heavymetal ions

    [116]

    PANI

    NiO/CuO

    Electrodeposition andelectrochemical oxidation

    Nanoparticles andnanofibers

    Non-enzymatic sensor

    [165]

    PANI

    NiCo2O4

    Hydrothermal treatment andin situ polymerization

    Core-shell structure

    Sensitive determination of glucose

    [166]

    PANI

    Hydrogen titanate

    A simple oxidativepolymerization method

    1D core-shell structured composites

    Cr(VI) and humic acidremoval

    [118]

    PANI

    MnFe2O4

    Incorporating MnFe2O4 duringpolymerization of aniline

    Fiber-like network structure

    Microbial fuel cell

    [167]

    PPy

    CuO

    Polymerization of pyrrole withCuO as wire templates

    Core-shell structures

    Lithium batteries

    [119]

    PPy

    TiO2

    Pulsed-light and pulsed-potentialmethods

    Highly orderednanotube arrays

    /

    [120]

    PPy

    TiO2

    Density functional theory simulation

    /

    An efficient photocatalyst

    [168]

    PPy

    SnO2

    Vapor phase polymerization

    Nanosheets and nanofibers

    Highly sensitive NH3 gas sensors

    [169]

    PPy

    NiO

    Solvothermal reduction

    Needle-like structures

    Non-enzymatic detection of glucose

    [170]

    PPy

    CoO

    CoO grown on 3D nickel foamwith PPy

    Well-aligned CoO nanowire

    Asymmetricsupercapacitors

    [171]

    PPy

    WO3

    In situ photopolymerization

    Uniform granularmorphology

    H2S gas sensor

    [121]

    PPy

    Fe2O3

    Hydrothermal and electrochemicalpolymerization

    3D honeycomb-likenanoflakes/leaves

    Asymmetricsupercapacitors

    [123]

    PPy

    ZnCo2O4

    Chemical polymerization method

    Mesoporous ZnCO2O4with PPy

    Anode for lithium-ionbatteries

    [172]

    PPy

    LiV3O8

    Low-temperature in situ oxidativepolymerization route

    Nanorods

    Rechargeable lithiumbatteries

    [173]

    PEDOT

    V2O5

    Cocoon-to-silk fiber reelingprocess

    Layered V2O5/PEDOTnanobelts

    Planar perovskite solar cells

    [174]

    PEDOT

    Fe2O3

    Spin-casted and in situpolyreaction

    Composite films with rough surface

    Dye sensitized solar cells

    [175]

    PEDOT:PSS

    V2O5

    Hydrothermal methodand spin-coating

    Double-deckedbuffer layer

    Photovoltaic cells

    [115]

    PEDOT:PSS

    Mn2O3

    Hydrothermal method and mixwith PEDOT:PSS

    Nanowires

    Lithium ion battery anodes

    [176]

    PEDOT

    NiO/Ni(OH)2

    Mild electrochemical route

    Flowerlike porous arrays

    Flexible asymmetric supercapacitors

    [177]

  • Table 5   Synthesis and applications of selected CP based nanocomposites with carbon materials

    Conductingpolymer

    Carbon

    Preparation method

    Morphology

    Properties and application

    Ref

    PANI

    CNTs

    Electrospinning

    Porous interconnectednetwork

    Supercapacitor electrodes

    [178]

    PANI

    CNTs

    Oxidative polymerizationprocess

    Nanotube networkwith carbon cloth

    Flexible supercapacitors

    [143]

    PANI

    DWCNTs

    Drop-casting solution

    Thin film

    Thermoelectric organic composites

    [179]

    PANI

    CNT-COOH

    Chemical oxidativepolymerization

    Coaxial structure

    Supercapacitor

    [144]

    PANI

    Graphene

    Chemical reduction andelectropolymerization

    Flexible paper withnanorod

    High-performancesupercapacitor

    [146]

    PANI

    Graphene

    One-step electrochemicalco-deposition

    PANI nanowires onnanosheets

    Flexible supercapacitors

    [180]

    PANI

    Graphene

    In-situ oxidativepolymerization

    Flaky wrinkled and folded sheet-like

    Electrodes andhydrophobicity

    [181]

    PANI

    3D-rGO

    One step hydrothermalmethod

    Interconnected porous 3D network

    Supercapacitors

    [182]

    PPy

    SWCNTs

    Convenient physical mixingand vacuum filtration

    Unique layer withnanosheets

    Thermoelectric performance

    [183]

    PPy

    Graphene

    Coating and electrochemicalreduction

    One-dimensionalnanostructure

    Supercapacitor andbiosensor

    [184]

    PPy

    Graphene

    Physical synthesis route

    3D hybridnanoarchitecture

    Solid-state flexiblecapacitor

    [185]

    PPy

    Graphene

    Chemical polymerization

    Multilayered nanoarchitecture

    Supercapacitors

    [186]

    PPy

    rGO

    Chemical polymerization

    Nanotubes and rGOnanosheets

    All-solid-statesupercapacitors

    [187]

    PEDOT:PSS

    MWCNTs

    Physical mixture

    Thin film

    Humidity sensor

    [188]

    PEDOT:PSS

    MWCNTs

    Electropolymerization

    Core-shell and 3Dnetwork

    Electrochemical capacitors

    [141]

    PEDOT:PSS

    G/SCNT

    Blend and spin-coating

    Film with nanosheets

    Transparent conductive electrodes

    [189]

    PEDOT:PSS

    rGO

    Reduce GO to rGO

    Hollow hybrid fiber

    Fiber supercapacitor

    [145]

    PEDOT

    Carbon

    Pulsed current electro-polymerization technique

    Carbon nanofoam-fibrous PEDOT

    Supercapacitor

    [190]

    PEDOT

    GO

    Electropolymerization

    Ridge

    Dopamine detection

    [191]

  • Table 6   Synthesis and applications of selected CP based ternary and multi-component nanocomposites

    Conductingpolymer

    Metal

    Metal oxides

    Carbonmaterials

    Othermaterials

    Preparation method

    Properties and applications

    Ref

    PANI

    Au

    /

    MWCNTs

    /

    Twisting two fibers coated with PANI@Au@CNT

    Highly stretchablesupercapacitors

    [192]

    PANI

    Au

    /

    Graphene

    /

    Hydrothermal method and in situ polymerizationprocess

    Improved performance for supercapacitors

    [148]

    PANI

    Fe

    /

    CNTs

    /

    Reducing FeCl3 in thesolution of anilineand CNT

    Catalysts with high oxygen reduction reaction

    [193]

    PANI

    Pd

    /

    rGO

    /

    One-step electrodeposition technique

    Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation reaction

    [194]

    PANI

    Ag

    /

    MWCNTs

    /

    Chemical polymerization of PANI

    Supercapacitors with outstanding energy density

    [195]

    PANI

    Au

    Fe3O4

    MWCNT

    /

    Layer-by-layer technique

    High-performanceelectromagnetic absorption

    [196]

    PANI

    /

    SnO2

    rGO

    /

    Microwave irradiationand in situ polymerization

    Active electrode materialfor supercapacitors

    [197]

    PANI

    /

    Fe3O4

    rGO

    /

    One-pot solvothermalmethod and polymerization

    Excellent microwaveabsorption properties

    [198]

    PANI

    /

    Fe3O4

    /

    Attapulgite

    One-pot process usingFe(III) as the oxidantfor aniline

    Served as an adsorbentand catalyst support

    [199]

    PANI

    /

    Co3O4

    /

    Chitosan

    In situ polymerization of aniline in CS and Co3O4

    Core/double shell structure

    [200]

    PANI

    /

    /

    rGO

    NiFe2O4

    Reduction, doping and in situ chemical polymerization

    High-performancesupercapacitors

    [201]

    PANI

    /

    /

    Graphene oxide

    S

    Modified Hummers method and layer-by-layer assembly

    Lithium-sulfur batteries

    [202]

    PANI

    /

    /

    C

    TiN

    Stepwise deposition and coating process

    Flexible supercapacitors

    [203]

    PPy

    Ag

    /

    CNTs

    /

    Oxidative polymerization of pyrrole with silver nitrate

    Effective towards E. colifor water disinfection

    [152]

    PPy

    /

    Fe2O3

    rGO

    /

    Hydrothermal synthesis and oxidative polymerization

    Electrode with excellentcapacitance retention

    [149]

    PPy

    /

    TiO2

    Graphene

    /

    Directly mixing/drying,reduction, and heattreatment

    High capacitance forsupercapacitors

    [204]

    PPy

    /

    TiO2

    CNTs

    /

    Chemical preparation and in situ polymerization

    Improved electrochemical response

    [205]

    PPy

    Ag

    ZnO

    /

    /

    Polymerize pyrrole withsilver-ammonia complex

    Anode material forzinc-based secondary cell

    [206]

    PPy

    Pt/Pd

    MoO3

    /

    /

    Polymerize pyrrolewith MoO3

    Electrocatalysis of ethanolin acid media

    [207]

    PEDOT

    Ti

    Fe2O3

    /

    /

    Hydrothermal method and electrodeposition

    High-energy asymmetric supercapacitors

    [208]

    PEDOT:PSS

    /

    MnO2

    CNTs

    /

    Vacuum filtration andelectrochemical deposition

    Supercapacitors with high energy density

    [150]

    PEDOT:PSS

    /

    RuO2

    Graphene

    /

    Electrostatic stabilization

    Screen-printing ink for supercapacitor

    [209]

    PEDOT:PSS

    /

    /

    MWCNT

    Ni(OH)2

    Coordinating etching and precipitating method

    Pseudocapacitive materials for supercapacitors

    [210]

  • Table 7   Selected conducting polymer based nanocomposites as chemiresistive sensors

    Sensing materials

    Structure

    Sensing gas

    Concentration

    Sensitivity or response

    Detection limit

    Response time

    Recover time

    Ref

    PANI/Cu

    Thin film

    NH3

    50 ppm

    86%

    1 ppm

    7 s

    160 s

    [278]

    PANI/Au

    Nanowires

    H2S

    /

    13.8%

    0.1 ppb

    < 2 min

    < 5 min

    [279]

    PANI/Au

    Nanofibers

    CH3SH

    1.5 ppm

    30%

    1.5 ppm

    ~500 s

    /

    [107]

    PANI/Ag

    Nano-network

    NH3

    10 ppm

    90%

    5 ppm

    < 3 min

    /

    [280]

    PANI/CeO2

    Core-shell NPs

    NH3

    50 ppm

    650%

    2 ppm

    57.6 s

    /

    [281]

    PANI/SnO2

    Nanosheets

    NH3

    5 ppm

    30%

    257 ppb

    259 s

    468 s

    [169]

    PANI/rGO

    Network film

    NH3

    100 ppm

    60%

    100 ppb

    36 s

    18 s

    [282]

    PANI/CNTs

    Nanofibers

    NH3

    30 ppm

    40%

    4 ppm

    18 s

    46 s

    [283]

    PANI/MWCNTs

    Core-shell nanotubes

    NH3

    2 ppm

    15.5%

    /

    6 s

    35 s

    [284]

    PANI/graphene

    Meshed structure

    NH3

    20 ppm

    360%

    1 ppm

    50 s

    23 s

    [285]

    PANI/(S,N:GQDs)

    Nano-pores

    NH3

    100 ppm

    42.3%

    1 ppm

    115 s

    44 s

    [286]

    PPy/Ag

    Nanowires

    Ethanol

    80 ppm

    54%

    10 ppm

    < 1 min

    500 s

    [287]

    PPy/Pd

    Core-shell NPs

    NH3

    20 ppm

    13.1%

    /

    14 s

    148 s

    [288]

    PPy/NiO

    Nanocomposite

    NO2

    100 ppm

    47%

    10 ppm

    49 s

    < 5 min

    [289]

    PPy/WO3

    Nanocomposites

    NO2

    100 ppm

    61%

    5 ppm

    /

    /

    [290]

    PPy/TiO2/graphene

    Nanocomposites

    NH3

    50 ppm

    102.2%

    /

    36 s

    16 s

    [291]

    PEDOT/Ag

    Nanotubes

    NH3

    100 ppm

    30%

    1 ppm

    2 s

    7 s

    [292]

    PEDOT:PSS/Cu(II)

    Porous structure

    NH3

    50 ppm

    8%

    /

    138 s

    63 s

    [293]

    PEDOT:PSS/Fe(II)

    Thin film

    CO

    /

    150%

    /

    30 s

    5 s

    [294]

    PEDOT:PSS/GO

    Thin film

    H2

    100 ppm

    4.2%

    /

    30 s

    25 s

    [295]

  • Table 8   Selected conducting polymer based nanocomposites as biosensors

    Electrodeconfiguration

    Analyte

    LOD

    (μmol L−1)

    Linear range

    (mmol L−1)

    Working

    potential (V)

    Response time (s)

    Sensitivity

    (µA mmol−1 L cm−2)

    Ref

    PPy/Ag/GCE

    H2O2

    0.68

    0.005–0.1

    −0.25

    < 5

    9,701

    [310]

    PPy/CuNPs

    H2O2

    0.9

    0.2–1

    −0.85

    < 3

    /

    [311]

    PPy/Ag/Fe3O4/GCE

    H2O2

    1.7

    0.00–11.5

    −0.2

    /

    /

    [312]

    PEDOT:PSS/MB

    H2O2

    0.1

    0.0001–0.12

    −0.15

    /

    353.9

    [313]

    PANI/PtNPs

    Glucose

    0.7

    0.01–8

    −0.56

    3

    96.1

    [314]

    PANI/NiCo2O4

    Glucose

    0.38

    0.015–4.735

    0.5

    /

    4,550

    [166]

    PANI/AuNPs/CC

    Glucose

    3.08

    0.0126–10.0

    /

    /

    150

    [315]

    PANI/Pt/GOx/PU/E-PU

    Glucose

    /

    0–20

    0.6

    /

    1.34

    [316]

    NiO/PANI/GO/GCE

    Glucose

    0.5

    0.002–5.560

    0.6

    /

    376.22

    [317]

    PPy/NiO

    Glucose

    0.33

    0.01–0.5

    0.53

    /

    1,094.80

    [170]

    POT/Au/Cu

    Glucose

    0.027

    1–30

    0.1

    /

    37

    [109]

    PPy/PB/CNP

    Hydrazine

    0.29

    0.0075–1.653

    0.25

    < 3

    /

    [151]

    PANI/Nafion/Cu

    Urea

    0.5

    0.001–0.1

    −0.35

    15

    112

    [318]

    PANI/Nafion/Cu

    Creatinine

    0.5

    0.001–0.1

    −0.35

    15

    85

    [318]

    PANI/MWCNT/Basillus sp./GA

    Paracetamol

    2.9

    0.005–0.63

    0.5

    < 2

    /

    [319]

  • Table 9   The room-temperature TE properties of the conducting polymer based hybrid nanocomposite

    CPs-basednanocomposites

    Conductivity

    (σ) (S cm−1)

    Seebeck coefficient

    (S) (μV K−1)

    Power factors

    (S2σ) (μW m−1 K−2)

    Thermalconductivity

    (W m−1 K−1)

    ZT

    (S2σTκ−1)

    Ref

    PEDOT:PSS/Te nanorods

    19.3

    163(±4)

    70.9

    0.22–0.3

    0.1

    [350]

    PEDOT:PSS/Te nanorods

    2

    1400

    42

    /

    /

    [351]

    PANI/Te nanorods (70 wt.%)

    102

    102(±5)

    105

    0.21

    0.156

    [352]

    PEDOT:PSS/SWNTs

    400

    25

    25

    0.4

    /

    [353]

    PANI/SWCNT

    125

    40

    20

    /

    0.004

    [354]

    PANI/graphene

    130

    15

    3.6

    /

    0.008

    [355]

    PANI/graphene

    856

    15

    19

    /

    /

    [356]

    PANI/graphene/PANI/DWNT

    1,080

    130

    1,825

    /

    /

    [357]

    PANI/DWNT (30 wt.%)

    610

    ∼61

    ∼220

    /

    /

    [179]

    PPy/rGO

    75.1

    33.8

    8.56

    /

    /

    [358]

    PPy/SWCNT

    803(±29)

    41(±2)

    21.7

    /

    /

    [183]

    PPy/Graphene/PANI

    500

    32.4

    52.5

    /

    /

    [359]

    PANI/SWNT/Te

    345

    54

    101

    0.3

    /

    [360]

  • Table 10   Study on CPs-based composites for EMI shielding in recent three years

    CPs-based nanocomposites

    Preparation

    Conductivity

    (S cm−1)

    SE

    (dB)

    Thickness

    (mm)

    SSE

    (dB cm2 g−1)

    Ref

    PANI/Ag nanowire

    Two-step casting

    5,300

    50

    0.013

    -

    [415]

    PANI/amine-CNT

    In situ polymerization

    3,009

    50.2

    0.005

    74,900

    [416]

    PANI/amine-CNT

    In situ polymerization

    3,009

    74.9

    0.029

    19,300

    [416]

    PANI/graphite

    In situ polymerization and ball milling

    24

    83-89

    1

    -

    [417]

    PANI/graphite

    In situ polymerization and ball milling

    24

    17

    0.005

    -

    [417]

    PANI/graphene

    Solution intercalation

    116

    42

    0.005

    -

    [418]

    PANI/Bagasse fiber

    In situ polymerization

    2

    28.8

    0.4

    [419]

    PANI-aramid

    Mixture and spin coating

    300

    30

    0.007

    -

    [420]

    PANI/Co/Ni

    Electroless deposition

    -

    34-46

    -

    -

    [421]

    PPy/MWCNT

    In situ polymerization

    52

    108

    3

    -

    [422]

    PPy/sawdust

    In-situ polymerization and mixture

    1

    20

    0.01

    -

    [423]

    PEDOT:PSS/rGO

    In situ polymerization

    6.84

    70

    0.8

    841.3

    [424]

    PEDOT:PSS/graphene foam

    Drop coating

    43.2

    91.9

    1.5

    20,800

    [425]

    PEDOT:PSS/WPU

    Mixture and drop-casting

    77

    62

    0.15

    4133

    [426]

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