1. Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China;
2. Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, CAS, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
Corresponding author (emails:
Universal control of quantum systems is a major goal to be achieved for quantum information processing, which demands thorough understanding of fundamental quantum mechanics and promises applications of quantum technologies. So far, most studies concentrate on ideally isolated quantum systems governed by unitary evolutions, while practical quantum systems are open and described by quantum channels due to their inevitable coupling to environment. Here, we experimentally simulate arbitrary quantum channels for an open quantum system, i.e. a single photonic qubit in a superconducting quantum circuit. The arbitrary channel simulation is achieved with minimum resource of only one ancilla qubit and measurement-based adaptive control. By repetitively implementing the quantum channel simulation, we realize an arbitrary Liouvillian for a continuous evolution of an open quantum system for the first time. Our experiment provides not only a testbed for understanding quantum noise and decoherence, but also a powerful tool for full control of practical open quantum systems.
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