logo

中国地区现代人起源问题研究进展

李锋 1,3,*
More info
  • ReceivedJul 11, 2017
  • AcceptedNov 15, 2017
  • PublishedDec 7, 2017

Abstract


Funded by

国家自然科学基金项目(批准号:,41672024)


References

[1] 高星. 2012. 中国旧石器时代手斧的特点与意义. 人类学学报, 31: 97–112. Google Scholar

[2] 高星. 2014. 更新世东亚人群连续演化的考古证据及其相关问题论述. 人类学学报, 33: 237–253. Google Scholar

[3] 高星. 2017. 朝向人类起源与演化研究的共业: 古人类学、考古学与遗传学的交叉与整合. 人类学学报, 36: 131–140. Google Scholar

[4] 高星, 黄万波, 徐自强, 马志帮, Olsen J W. 2003. 三峡兴隆洞出土12~15万年前的古人类化石和象牙刻划. 科学通报, 48: 2466–2472. Google Scholar

[5] 高星, 裴树文. 2006. 中国古人类石器技术与生存模式的考古学阐释. 第四纪研究, 26: 504–513. Google Scholar

[6] 高星, 王惠民, 裴树文, 陈福友. 2013. 水洞沟——2003~2007年度考古发掘与研究报告. 北京: 科学出版社. Google Scholar

[7] 高星, 袁宝印, 裴树文,王惠民, 陈福友, 冯兴无. 2008. 水洞沟遗址沉积-地貌演化与古人类生存环境. 科学通报, 53: 1200–1206. Google Scholar

[8] 高星, 张晓凌, 杨东亚, 沈辰, 吴新智. 2010. 现代中国人起源与人类演化的区域性多样化模式. 中国科学: 地球科学, 40: 1287–1300. Google Scholar

[9] 关莹, 高星, 王惠民, 陈福友, 裴树文, 张晓凌, 周振宇. 2011. 水洞沟旧石器时代晚期遗址结构的空间利用分析. 科学通报, 56: 2797–2803. Google Scholar

[10] 黄石. 2015. 用与种系发生相关的DNA序列解读人类起源. 见: 席焕久, 刘武, 陈昭, 编. 21世纪中国人类学的发展. 北京: 知识产权出版社. 167–184. Google Scholar

[11] 吉学平, 吴秀杰, 吴沄, 刘武. 2014. 广西隆林古人类颞骨内耳迷路的3D复原及形态特征. 科学通报, 59: 3517–3525. Google Scholar

[12] 金昌柱, 潘文石, 张颖奇, 蔡演军, 徐钦琦, 唐治路, 王頠, 王元, 刘金毅, 秦大公, Edwards R L, Cheng H. 2009. 广西崇左江州木榄山智人洞古人类遗址及其地质时代. 科学通报, 54: 2848–2856. Google Scholar

[13] 柯越海, 宿兵, 李宏宇, 陈黎峰, 戚春建, 郭新军, 黄薇, 金建中, 卢大儒, 金力. 2001. Y染色体遗传学证据支持现代中国人起源于非洲. 科学通报, 46: 411–414. Google Scholar

[14] 李锋, 陈福友, 汪英华, 高星. 2016. 晚更新世晚期中国北方石叶技术所反映的技术扩散与人群迁移. 中国科学: 地球科学, 46: 891–905. Google Scholar

[15] 李有恒, 吴茂霖, 彭书琳, 周石保. 1984. 广西柳江土博出土的人牙化石及共生的哺乳动物群. 人类学学报, 3: 322–329. Google Scholar

[16] 刘德成, 王旭龙, 高星, 夏正楷, 裴树文, 陈福友, 王惠民. 2009. 水洞沟遗址地层划分与年代测定新进展. 科学通报, 54: 2879–2885. Google Scholar

[17] 刘武, 邢松, 吴秀杰. 2016. 中更新世晚期以来中国古人类化石形态特征的多样性. 中国科学: 地球科学, 46: 906–917. Google Scholar

[18] 彭菲, 高星, 王惠民, 陈福友, 刘德成, 裴树文. 2012. 水洞沟旧石器时代晚期遗址发现带有刻划痕迹的石制品. 科学通报, 57: 2475–2481. Google Scholar

[19] 沈冠军, 王頠, 王谦, 潘亚军. 2001. 广西柳江土博咁前洞的铀系年代. 人类学学报, 20: 238–244. Google Scholar

[20] 王春雪, 张乐, 高星, 张晓凌, 王惠民. 2009. 水洞沟遗址采集的鸵鸟蛋皮装饰品研究. 科学通报, 54: 2886–2894. Google Scholar

[21] 王社江, 鹿化煜. 2016. 秦岭地区更新世黄土地层中的旧石器埋藏与环境. 中国科学: 地球科学, 46: 881–890. Google Scholar

[22] 吴新智. 1998. 从中国晚期智人颅牙特征看中国现代人起源. 人类学学报, 17: 276–282. Google Scholar

[23] 吴新智. 2005. 与中国现代人起源问题有联系的分子生物学研究成果的讨论. 人类学学报, 24: 259–269. Google Scholar

[24] 吴新智. 2006. 现代人起源的多地区进化学说在中国的实证. 第四纪研究, 26: 702–709. Google Scholar

[25] 吴新智. 2014. 大荔颅骨在人类进化中的位置. 人类学学报, 33: 405–426. Google Scholar

[26] 吴新智, 徐欣. 2016. 从中国和西亚旧石器及道县人牙化石看中国现代人起源. 人类学学报, 35: 1–13. Google Scholar

[27] 杨波. 2014. 超六成汉人是5个超级祖先后代. 重庆晚报, 2014-08-11, A4版. Google Scholar

[28] 张乐, 王春雪, 张双权, 高星. 2009a. 马鞍山旧石器时代遗址古人类行为的动物考古学研究. 中国科学: 地球科学, 39: 1256–1265. Google Scholar

[29] 张乐, 王春雪, 张双权, 高星. 2009b. 切割痕迹揭示马鞍山遗址晚更新世末人类肉食行为. 科学通报, 54: 2871–2878. Google Scholar

[30] 张乐, 张双权, 徐欣, 刘德成, 王春雪, 裴树文, 王惠民, 高星. 2013. 中国更新世末全新世初广谱革命的新视角: 水洞沟第12地点的动物考古学研究. 中国科学: 地球科学, 43: 628–633. Google Scholar

[31] 张双权, 李占扬, 张乐, 高星. 2009. 河南许昌灵井人遗址大型食草类动物死亡年龄分析及东亚现代人类行为的早期出现. 科学通报, 54: 2857–2863. Google Scholar

[32] 张双权, 李占扬, 张乐, 高星. 2012. 河南灵井许昌人遗址大型食草类动物的骨骼单元分布. 中国科学: 地球科学, 42: 764–772. Google Scholar

[33] 张双权, 张乐, 栗静舒, 高星. 2016. 晚更新世晚期中国古人类的广谱适应生存——动物考古学的证据. 中国科学: 地球科学, 46: 1024–1036. Google Scholar

[34] 赵凌霞, 张立召, 杜抱朴, 年小美, 郑远文, 张忠文, 王翠斌, 王新金, 蔡回阳. 2016. 贵州毕节发现古人类化石与哺乳动物群. 人类学学报, 35: 24–35. Google Scholar

[35] 周振宇, 关莹, 高星, 王春雪. 2013. 水洞沟遗址的石料热处理现象及其反映的早期现代人行为. 科学通报, 58: 815–824. Google Scholar

[36] Antón S C, Potts R, Aiello L C. Evolution of early Homo: An integrated biological perspective. Science, 2014, 345: 1236828 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[37] Bae C J, Wang W, Zhao J, Huang S, Tian F, Shen G. Modern human teeth from Late Pleistocene Luna Cave (Guangxi, China). Quat Int, 2014, 354: 169-183 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[38] Bar-Yosef O. The Upper Paleolithic revolution. Annu Rev Anthropol, 2002, 31: 363-393 CrossRef Google Scholar

[39] Bar-Yosef O, Bordes J G. 2010. Who were the makers of the Châtelperronian culture? J Hum Evol, 59: 586–593. Google Scholar

[40] Bouzouggar A, Barton N, Vanhaeren M, d’Errico F, Collcutt S, Higham T, Hodge E, Parfitt S, Rhodes E, Schwenninger J L, Stringer C, Turner E, Ward S, Moutmir A, Stambouli A. 82000-year-old shell beads from North Africa and implications for the origins of modern human behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2007, 104: 9964-9969 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[41] Cann R L, Stoneking M, Wilson A C. Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature, 1987, 325: 31-36 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[42] Caspari R, Wolpoff M H. 2013. The process of modern human origins: The evolutionary and demographic changes giving rise to modern humans. In: Smith F, Ahern C M, eds. The Origins of Modern Humans: Biology Reconsidered. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons Inc. 355–392. Google Scholar

[43] Chu J Y, Huang W, Kuang S Q, Wang J M, Xu J J, Chu Z T, Yang Z Q, Lin K Q, Li P, Wu M, Geng Z C, Tan C C, Du R F, Jin L. Genetic relationship of populations in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1998, 95: 11763-11768 CrossRef Google Scholar

[44] Coolidge F L, Wynn T. Working memory, its executive functions, and the emergence of modern thinking. Camb Archaeol J, 2005, 15: 5-26 CrossRef Google Scholar

[45] Coward F, Gamble C. Big brains, small worlds: Material culture and the evolution of the mind. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 2008, 363: 1969-1979 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[46] Curnoe D, Ji X P, Herries A I R, Kanning B, Taçon P S C, Bao Z D, Fink D, Zhu Y S, Hellstrom J, Luo Y, Cassis G, Su B, Wroe S, Hong S, Parr W C H, Huang S M, Rogers N. Human remains from the Pleistocene-Holocene transition of Southwest China suggest a complex evolutionary history for East Asians. Plos One, 2012, 7: e31918 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[47] d’Errico F. The invisible frontier: A multiple species model for the origin of behavioral modernity. Evol Anthropol, 2003, 12: 188-202 CrossRef Google Scholar

[48] d’Errico F, Henshilwood C, Lawson G, Vanhaeren M, Tillier A M, Soressi M, Bresson F, Maureille B, Nowell A, Lakarra J, Backwell L, Julienlo M. Archaeological evidence for the emergence of language, symbolism, and music: An alternative multidisciplinary perspective. J World Prehistory, 2003, 17: 1-70 CrossRef Google Scholar

[49] d’Errico F, Stringer C B. Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures?. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 2011, 366: 1060-1069 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[50] d’Errico F, Vanhaeren M, Barton N, Bouzouggar A, Mienis H, Richter D, Hublin J J, McPherron S P, Lozouet P. Additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2009, 106: 16051-16056 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[51] d’Errico F, Zilhão J, Julien M, Baffier D, Pelegrin J. Neanderthal acculturation in western Europe? A critical review of the evidence and its interpretation. Curr Anthropol, 1998, 39: S1-S44 CrossRef Google Scholar

[52] Fu Q, Hajdinjak M, Moldovan O T, Constantin S, Mallick S, Skoglund P, Patterson N, Rohland N, Lazaridis I, Nickel B, Viola B, Prüfer K, Meyer M, Kelso J, Reich D, Pääbo S. An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor. Nature, 2015, 524: 216-219 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[53] Fu Q, Li H, Moorjani P, Jay F, Slepchenko S M, Bondarev A A, Johnson P L F, Aximu-Petri A, Prüfer K, de Filippo C, Meyer M, Zwyns N, Salazar-García D C, Kuzmin Y V, Keates S G, Kosintsev P A, Razhev D I, Richards M P, Peristov N V, Lachmann M, Douka K, Higham T F G, Slatkin M, Hublin J J, Reich D, Kelso J, Viola T B, Pääbo S. Genome sequence of a 45000-year-old modern human from Western Siberia. Nature, 2014, 514: 445-449 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[54] Fu Q, Meyer M, Gao X, Stenzel U, Burbano H A, Kelso J, Pääbo S. DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2013, 110: 2223-2227 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[55] Gao X. Paleolithic cultures in China. Curr Anthropol, 2013, 54: S358-S370 CrossRef Google Scholar

[56] Green R E, Krause J, Briggs A W, Maricic T, Stenzel U, Kircher M, Patterson N, Li H, Zhai W, Fritz M H Y, Hansen N F, Durand E Y, Malaspinas A S, Jensen J D, Marques-Bonet T, Alkan C, Prüfer K, Meyer M, Burbano H A, Good J M, Schultz R, Aximu-Petri A, Butthof A, Höber B, Höffner B, Siegemund M, Weihmann A, Nusbaum C, Lander E S, Russ C, Novod N, Affourtit J, Egholm M, Verna C, Rudan P, Brajkovic D, Kucan Ž, Gušic I, Doronichev V B, Golovanova L V, Lalueza-Fox C, de la Rasilla M, Fortea J, Rosas A, Schmitz R W, Johnson P L F, Eichler E E, Falush D, Birney E, Mullikin J C, Slatkin M, Nielsen R, Kelso J, Lachmann M, Reich D, Pääbo S. A draft sequence of the neandertal genome. Science, 2010, 328: 710-722 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[57] Henshilwood C S, d’Errico F, Watts I. Engraved ochres from the Middle Stone Age levels at Blombos Cave, South Africa. J Human Evol, 2009, 57: 27-47 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[58] Henshilwood C S, d’Errico F, Yates R, Jacobs Z, Tribolo C, Duller G A T, Mercier N, Sealy J C, Valladas H, Watts I, Wintle A G. Emergence of modern human behavior: Middle stone age engravings from south Africa. Science, 2002, 295: 1278-1280 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[59] Henshilwood C S, Marean C W. The origin of modern human behavior. Curr Anthropol, 2003, 44: 627-651 CrossRef Google Scholar

[60] Hershkovitz I, Smith P, Sarig R, Quam R, Rodríguez L, García R, Arsuaga J L, Barkai R, Gopher A. Middle pleistocene dental remains from Qesem Cave (Israel). Am J Phys Anthropol, 2011, 144: 575-592 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[61] Hershkovitz I, Weber G W, Fornai C, Gopher A, Barkai R, Slon V, Quam R, Gabet Y, Sarig R. New Middle Pleistocene dental remains from Qesem Cave (Israel). Quat Int, 2016, 398: 148-158 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[62] Hublin J J, Ben-Ncer A, Bailey S E, Freidline S E, Neubauer S, Skinner M M, Bergmann I, Le Cabec A, Benazzi S, Harvati K, Gunz P. New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens. Nature, 2017, 546: 289-292 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[63] Hublin J J, Talamo S, Julien M, David F, Connet N, Bodu P, Vandermeersch B, Richards M P. Radiocarbon dates from the Grotte du Renne and Saint-Cesaire support a Neandertal origin for the Chatelperronian. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2012, 109: 18743-18748 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[64] Jin L, Su B. Natives or immigrants: modern human origin in east Asia.. Nat Rev Genet, 2000, 1: 126-133 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[65] Joordens J C A, d’Errico F, Wesselingh F P, Munro S, de Vos J, Wallinga J, Ankjærgaard C, Reimann T, Wijbrans J R, Kuiper K F, Mücher H J, Coqueugniot H, Prié V, Joosten I, van Os B, Schulp A S, Panuel M, van der Haas V, Lustenhouwer W, Reijmer J J G, Roebroeks W. Homo erectus at Trinil on Java used shells for tool production and engraving. Nature, 2015, 518: 228-231 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[66] Ke Y, Su B, Song X, Lu D, Chen L, Li H, Qi C, Marzuki S, Deka R, Underhill P, Xiao C, Shriver M, Lell J, Wallace D, Wells R S, Seielstad M, Oefner P, Zhu D, Jin J, Huang W, Chakraborty R, Chen Z, Jin L. African origin of modern humans in East Asia: A tale of 12000 Y chromosomes. Science, 2001, 292: 1151-1153 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[67] Klein R G. Anatomy, behavior, and modern human origins. J World Prehist, 1995, 9: 167-198 CrossRef Google Scholar

[68] Klein R G. 2009. The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Google Scholar

[69] Krause J, Fu Q, Good J M, Viola B, Shunkov M V, Derevianko A P, Pääbo S. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia. Nature, 2010, 464: 894-897 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[70] Krings M, Capelli C, Tschentscher F, Geisert H, Meyer S, von Haeseler A, Grossschmidt K, Possnert G, Paunovic M, Pääbo S. A view of Neandertal genetic diversity. Nat Genet, 2000, 26: 144-146 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[71] Kuhlwilm M, Gronau I, Hubisz M J, de Filippo C, Prado-Martinez J, Kircher M, Fu Q, Burbano H A, Lalueza-Fox C, de la Rasilla M, Rosas A, Rudan P, Brajkovic D, Kucan Ž, Gušic I, Marques-Bonet T, Andrés A M, Viola B, Pääbo S, Meyer M, Siepel A, Castellano S. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals. Nature, 2016, 530: 429-433 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[72] Li F, Kuhn S L, Gao X, Chen F Y. Re-examination of the dates of large blade technology in China: A comparison of Shuidonggou Locality 1 and Locality 2. J Human Evol, 2013, 64: 161-168 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[73] Li F, Kuhn S L, Olsen J W, Chen F, Gao X. Disparate stone age technological evolution in North China. J Anthropological Res, 2014, 70: 35-67 CrossRef Google Scholar

[74] Li Z Y, Wu X J, Zhou L P, Liu W, Gao X, Nian X M, Trinkaus E. Late Pleistocene archaic human crania from Xuchang, China. Science, 2017, 355: 969-972 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[75] Liu W, Jin C Z, Zhang Y Q, Cai Y J, Xing S, Wu X J, Cheng H, Edwards R L, Pan W S, Qin D G, An Z S, Trinkaus E, Wu X Z. Human remains from Zhirendong, South China, and modern human emergence in East Asia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2010, 107: 19201-19206 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[76] Liu W, Martinón-Torres M, Cai Y J, Xing S, Tong H W, Pei S W, Sier M J, Wu X H, Edwards R L, Cheng H, Li Y Y, Yang X X, de Castro J M B, Wu X J. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China. Nature, 2015, 526: 696-699 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[77] Liu W, Schepartz L A, Xing S, Miller-Antonio S, Wu X, Trinkaus E, Martinón-Torres M. Late Middle Pleistocene hominin teeth from Panxian Dadong, South China. J Human Evol, 2013, 64: 337-355 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[78] Liu W, Wu X, Li Y, Deng C, Wu X, Pei S. 2008. Evidence of fire use of late Pleistocene humans from the Huanglong Cave, Hubei Province, China. Chin Sci Bull, 54: 256–264. Google Scholar

[79] Lordkipanidze D, Ponce de León M S, Margvelashvili A, Rak Y, Rightmire G P, Vekua A, Zollikofer C P E. A complete skull from dmanisi, georgia, and the evolutionary biology of Early Homo. Science, 2013, 342: 326-331 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[80] McBrearty S, Brooks A S. The revolution that wasn’t: A new interpretation of the origin of modern human behavior. J Human Evol, 2000, 39: 453-563 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[81] Mellars P. Major issues in the emergence of modern humans. Curr Anthropol, 1989, 30: 349-385 CrossRef Google Scholar

[82] Mellars P A. Archaeology and the population-dispersal hypothesis of modern human origins in Europe. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 1992, 337: 225-234 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[83] Mellars P. The impossible coincidence. A single-species model for the origins of modern human behavior in Europe. Evol Anthropol, 2005, 14: 12-27 CrossRef Google Scholar

[84] Mellars P. Archeology and the dispersal of modern humans in Europe: Deconstructing the “Aurignacian”. Evol Anthropol, 2006a, 15: 167-182 CrossRef Google Scholar

[85] Mellars P. Going east: New genetic and archaeological perspectives on the modern human colonization of Eurasia. Science, 2006b, 313: 796-800 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[86] Mellars P. 2007. Rethinking the human revolution: Eurasian and African perspectives. In: Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, eds. Rethinking the Human Revolution: New Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archeological Research. Google Scholar

[87] Meyer M, Kircher M, Gansauge M T, Li H, Racimo F, Mallick S, Schraiber J G, Jay F, Prüfer K, de Filippo C, Sudmant P H, Alkan C, Fu Q, Do R, Rohland N, Tandon A, Siebauer M, Green R E, Bryc K, Briggs A W, Stenzel U, Dabney J, Shendure J, Kitzman J, Hammer M F, Shunkov M V, Derevianko A P, Patterson N, Andrés A M, Eichler E E, Slatkin M, Reich D, Kelso J, Pääbo S. A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual. Science, 2012, 338: 222-226 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[88] Morwood M J, Soejono R P, Roberts R G, Sutikna T, Turney C S M, Westaway K E, Rink W J, Zhao J X, van den Bergh G D, Due R A, Hobbs D R, Moore M W, Bird M I, Fifield L K. Archaeology and age of a new hominin from Flores in eastern Indonesia. Nature, 2004, 431: 1087-1091 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[89] Nowell A. Defining behavioral modernity in the context of neandertal and anatomically modern human populations. Annu Rev Anthropol, 2010, 39: 437-452 CrossRef Google Scholar

[90] Peng F, Gao X, Wang H M, Chen F Y, Liu D C, Pei S W. An engraved artifact from Shuidonggou, an Early Late Paleolithic Site in Northwest China. Chin Sci Bull, 2012, 57: 4594-4599 CrossRef Google Scholar

[91] Peng F, Wang H M, Gao X. Blade production of Shuidonggou Locality1 (Northwest China): A technological perspective. Quat Int, 2014, 347: 12-20 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[92] Prüfer K, Racimo F, Patterson N, Jay F, Sankararaman S, Sawyer S, Heinze A, Renaud G, Sudmant P H, de Filippo C, Li H, Mallick S, Dannemann M, Fu Q, Kircher M, Kuhlwilm M, Lachmann M, Meyer M, Ongyerth M, Siebauer M, Theunert C, Tandon A, Moorjani P, Pickrell J, Mullikin J C, Vohr S H, Green R E, Hellmann I, Johnson P L F, Blanche H, Cann H, Kitzman J O, Shendure J, Eichler E E, Lein E S, Bakken T E, Golovanova L V, Doronichev V B, Shunkov M V, Derevianko A P, Viola B, Slatkin M, Reich D, Kelso J, Pääbo S. The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains. Nature, 2014, 505: 43-49 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[93] Reich D, Green R E, Kircher M, Krause J, Patterson N, Durand E Y, Viola B, Briggs A W, Stenzel U, Johnson P L F, Maricic T, Good J M, Marques-Bonet T, Alkan C, Fu Q, Mallick S, Li H, Meyer M, Eichler E E, Stoneking M, Richards M, Talamo S, Shunkov M V, Derevianko A P, Hublin J J, Kelso J, Slatkin M, Pääbo S. Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature, 2010, 468: 1053-1060 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[94] Reich D, Patterson N, Kircher M, Delfin F, Nandineni M R, Pugach I, Ko A M S, Ko Y C, Jinam T A, Phipps M E, Saitou N, Wollstein A, Kayser M, Pääbo S, Stoneking M. Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania. Am J Human Genets, 2011, 89: 516-528 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[95] Rodríguez-Vidal J, d’Errico F, Giles Pacheco F, Blasco R, Rosell J, Jennings R P, Queffelec A, Finlayson G, Fa D A, Gutiérrez López J M, Carrión J S, Negro J J, Finlayson S, Cáceres L M, Bernal M A, Fernández Jiménez S, Finlayson C. A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2014, 111: 13301-13306 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[96] Sankararaman S, Mallick S, Dannemann M, Prüfer K, Kelso J, Pääbo S, Patterson N, Reich D. The genomic landscape of Neanderthal ancestry in present-day humans. Nature, 2014, 507: 354-357 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[97] Sankararaman S, Patterson N, Li H, Pääbo S, Reich D. The date of interbreeding between neandertals and modern humans. Plos Genet, 2012, 8: e1002947 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[98] Schepartz L A. Language and modern human origins. Am J Phys Anthropol, 1993, 36: 91-126 CrossRef Google Scholar

[99] Shea J J. Homo sapiens is as Homo sapiens Was. Curr Anthropol, 2011, 52: 1-35 CrossRef Google Scholar

[100] Smith F H. 1984. Fossil hominids from the Upper Pleistocene of central Europe and the origin of modern Europeans. In: Smith F, Spencer F, eds. The Origins of Modern Humans. A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence. New York: Liss. 137–209. Google Scholar

[101] Smith F H, Falsetti A B, Donnelly S M. Modern human origins. Am J Phys Anthropol, 1989, 32: 35-68 CrossRef Google Scholar

[102] Smith F H, Janković I, Karavanić I. The assimilation model, modern human origins in Europe, and the extinction of Neandertals. Quat Int, 2005, 137: 7-19 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[103] Soficaru A, Dobos A, Trinkaus E. Early modern humans from the Pestera Muierii, Baia de Fier, Romania. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2006, 103: 17196-17201 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[104] Stringer C B. Reconstructing recent human evolution. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 1992, 337: 217-224 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[105] Stringer C. 2002. Modern human origins: Orogress and prospects. Philos T R Soc B,357: 563–579. Google Scholar

[106] Stringer C. Why we are not all multiregionalists now. Trends Ecol Evol, 2014, 29: 248-251 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[107] Stringer C B, Andrews P. Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans. Science, 1988, 239: 1263-1268 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[108] Su B, Xiao J, Underhill P, Deka R, Zhang W, Akey J, Huang W, Shen D, Lu D, Luo J, Chu J, Tan J, Shen P, Davis R, Cavalli-Sforza L, Chakraborty R, Xiong M, Du R, Oefner P, Chen Z, Jin L. Y-chromosome evidence for a northward migration of modern humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. Am J Human Genets, 1999, 65: 1718-1724 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[109] Sutikna T, Tocheri M W, Morwood M J, Saptomo E W, Jatmiko E W, Awe R D, Wasisto S, Westaway K E, Aubert M, Li B, Zhao J, Storey M, Alloway B V, Morley M W, Meijer H J M, van den Bergh G D, Grün R, Dosseto A, Brumm A, Jungers W L, Roberts R G. Revised stratigraphy and chronology for Homo floresiensis at Liang Bua in Indonesia. Nature, 2016, 532: 366-369 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[110] Tattersall I. What happened in the origin of human consciousness?. Anat Rec, 2004, 276B: 19-26 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[111] Templeton A. Out of Africa again and again. Nature, 2002, 416: 45-51 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[112] Templeton A R. Genetics and recent human evolution. Evolution, 2007, 61: 1507-1519 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[113] Tocheri M W, Orr C M, Larson S G, Sutikna T, Jatmiko T, Saptomo E W, Due R A, Djubiantono T, Morwood M J, Jungers W L. The primitive wrist of Homo floresiensis and its implications for hominin evolution. Science, 2007, 317: 1743-1745 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[114] Trinkaus E, Churchill S E, Ruff C B, Vandermeersch B. Long bone shaft robusticity and body proportions of the Saint-Césaire 1 Châtelperronian Neanderthal. J Archaeol Sci, 1999, 26: 753-773 CrossRef Google Scholar

[115] Vernot B, Akey J M. Resurrecting surviving neandertal lineages from modern human genomes. Science, 2014, 343: 1017-1021 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[116] Vernot B, Tucci S, Kelso J, Schraiber J G, Wolf A B, Gittelman R M, Dannemann M, Grote S, McCoy R C, Norton H, Scheinfeldt L B, Merriwether D A, Koki G, Friedlaender J S, Wakefield J, Pääbo S, Akey J M. Excavating Neandertal and Denisovan DNA from the genomes of Melanesian individuals. Science, 2016, 352: 235-239 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[117] Wadley L, Hodgskiss T, Grant M. Implications for complex cognition from the hafting of tools with compound adhesives in the Middle Stone Age, South Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2009, 106: 9590-9594 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[118] Wang X M, Guan Y, Cai H Y, Costamagno S, Zhang L M, Xu C H, Gao X. Diet breadth and mortality patterns from Laoya Cave: A primary profile of MIS 3/2 hunting strategies in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, southwest China. Sci China Earth Sci, 2016, 59: 1642-1651 CrossRef Google Scholar

[119] Wolpoff M H, Hawks J, Caspari R. Multiregional, not multiple origins. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2000, 112: 129-136 CrossRef Google Scholar

[120] Wolpoff M H, Wu X Z, Thorne A G. 1984. Modern Homo sapiens origins: A general theory of hominid evolution involving the fossil evidence from East Asia. In: Smith F H, Spencer F, eds. The Origins of Modern Humans: A World Survey of the Fossil Evidence. New York: Alan R Liss Inc. 411–483. Google Scholar

[121] Wolpoff M. 1999. Paleoanthropology. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Google Scholar

[122] Wu X J, Crevecoeur I, Liu W, Xing S, Trinkaus E. Temporal labyrinths of eastern Eurasian Pleistocene humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2014, 111: 10509-10513 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[123] Zhang X M, Liao S Y, Qi X B, Liu J W, Kampuansai J, Zhang H, Yang Z H, Serey B, Sovannary T, Bunnath L, Seang Aun H, Samnom H, Kangwanpong D, Shi H, Su B. Y-chromosome diversity suggests southern origin and Paleolithic backwave migration of Austro-Asiatic speakers from eastern Asia to the Indian subcontinent. Sci Rep, 2015, 5: 15486 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[124] Zhang X M, Qi X B, Yang Z H, Serey B, Sovannary T, Bunnath L, Seang Aun H, Samnom H, Zhang H, Lin Q, van Oven M, Shi H, Su B. Analysis of mitochondrial genome diversity identifies new and ancient maternal lineages in Cambodian aborigines. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 2599 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[125] Zilhão J. 2006. Aurignacian, behavior, modern: issues of definition in the emergence of the European Upper Paleolithic. In: Bar-Yosef O, Zilhão J, eds. Towards a Definition of the Aurignacian: Proceedings of the Symposium Held in Lisbon. Portugal. Lisbon: Instituto Português de Arqueologia. 53–70. Google Scholar