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Chinese Science Bulletin, Volume 62 , Issue 22 : 2473-2479(2017) https://doi.org/10.1360/N972016-01315

Artificial intelligence: Concept, approach and opportunity

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  • ReceivedNov 25, 2016
  • AcceptedJun 20, 2017
  • PublishedJul 18, 2017

Abstract

It has been commonly accepted that all kinds of conscious activities, complex and creative activities in particular, performed by human beings are all activated, controlled, guided and evaluated by human intelligence. In other words, human intelligence is really the creative center for any meaningful activities in humans. The major goal of artificial intelligence research is the attempt to explore and understand the secretes of the working mechanism of human intelligence and then, based on the understanding, to simulate the mechanism of human intelligence in machineries so as to innovate artificially intelligent machines that are expected to be able to support all human activities in a way that looks nearly like human beings. Therefore, the advancement resulted from artificial intelligence research will effectively promote the innovative progresses in all fields of human activities, including the economic and social development, scientific and technological researches, educational and cultural standards, security and military defense affairs, etc. It is because of this fact that many countries, especially the developed countries, in the world have attached very high importance with, and also made very heavy efforts in, artificial intelligence research. Furthermore, it is worth noticing that due to the radical difference in properties exists between matter and information the scientific methodology for artificial intelligence research is experiencing a great upgrade. The old methodology called mechanical reductionism featured with “divide and conquer”, which has made long-term contributions for the development of matter science during the past hundreds years, has to be replaced by the new methodology called information ecology-ism featured with “integration and up-growing”, which is emerging up just recently and is more appropriate to the Chinese thinking tradition. This is an excellent opportunity, never met before in history, for Chinese researchers to make more contributions to the development of artificial intelligence in the world in our time. In viewing of the panorama concerning the artificial intelligence research stated above, it is more necessary for China to make comprehensive investigation in depth on the status, the trend, and the implication of artificial intelligence research and to make proper policy for strengthening the supports to the advancement of artificial intelligence.


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  • Figure 1

    The abstract and global model for intelligent system

  • Figure 2

    The model of intelligent system in principle

  • Table 1   The interrelationship among structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism and mechanism AI

    机制主义

    人工智能

    信息

    知识

    智能策略

    特例

    A类

    信息

    经验性知识

    经验型智能策略

    人工神经网络

    B类

    信息

    规范性知识

    规范性智能策略

    专家系统

    C类

    信息

    常识性知识

    常识性智能策略

    感知动作系统

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