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Chinese Science Bulletin, Volume 62 , Issue 27 : 3154-3172(2017) https://doi.org/10.1360/N972016-01409

Two-dimensional materials for electrocatalytic water splitting

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  • ReceivedDec 15, 2016
  • AcceptedFeb 27, 2017
  • PublishedApr 18, 2017

Abstract


Funded by

国家科技部重点研发计划(2016YFA0204100)

国家科技部重点研发计划(2016YFA0200200)

国家自然科学基金(21573220)

中国科学院前沿科学重点研究计划(QYZDB-SSW-JSC020)

中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA09030100)


Supplement

补充材料

图S1 酸性溶液中电极表面析氢反应机理图

图S2 MoS2边在催化HER反应中的作用

图S3 MoS2/CoSe2催化剂在HER反应中的应用

图S4 酸性和碱性溶液中析氧反应机理图

图S5 LDHs材料在催化OER反应中的应用

本文以上补充材料见网络版csb.scichina.com. 补充材料为作者提供的原始数据, 作者对其学术质量和内容负责.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Schematics of graphene structures and their heterostructures (a), TMDs (b), g-C3N4 (c) and LDHs (d)

  • Figure 2

    (a) Relationship between j0 and ΔGH* under assumption of a Langmuir adsorption model. (b) Relationship between j0 and ΔGH* for HER on the surface of various metals, alloy compounds, and non-metallic materials[93]

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) (a), (b) HRTEM images of CoNi@NC, showing the graphene shells and encapsulated metal nanoparticles. (c) Schematic illustration of the CoNi@NC structure shown in (b). (d) HER polarization curves for CoNi@NC and other samples prepared at different temperatures. (e) Volcano plot of the polarized current versus ΔGH* for different samples[53]

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) TEM (a), HRTEM (b) and STEM (c) images of Mo2C@NPC/NPRGO. (d) Polarization curves of Mo2C@NPC/NPRGO and other samples[57]. Scale bars: (a) 100 nm; (b) 5 nm; (c) 50 nm

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) (a) SEM image of the inside structure of PCN@N-graphene film. (b) Polarization curves of PCN@N-graphene and other samples[59]. (c) TEM image showing the mesoporous structure of the SCN-MPC sample[64]. (d) LSV polarization curves of Pd-CNx, Pt/C, Pd/C, and g-CNx[61]

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) (a) Schematic illustration of the electrocatalytic water-splitting by S-depleted MoS1.65 NCs. (b) HRTEM image of the S-depleted MoS1.65 NCs. (c) Polarization curves of S-depleted MoS1.65NCs and other samples[68]. (d) HAADF-STEM image of Pt-MoS2 showing that the single Pt atoms uniformly disperse in the 2D MoS2 plane. (e) Magnified domain with dashed rectangle in (d) showing a honeycomb arrangement of MoS2, and the single Pt atoms occupying the exact positions of the Mo atoms (marked by arrows). (f) HER polarization curves for Pt-MoS2 in comparison with other samples[69]

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) (a) HRSTEM images of an as-exfoliated 1T-WS2 monolayer. Scale bar: 1 nm. (b) Polarization curves of as-exfoliated 1T-WS2 and other samples. (c) The variation in current density versus time of 1T-WS2 electrode operation showing that the current density remains constant over the tested period[105]. (d) HRTEM of the exfoliated 1T-WS2 nanosheets. (e) Polarization curves comparing the high-performance HER catalysis from 1T-WS2 nanosheets with other catalysts[72]

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) (a) SEM image of FeNi-GO LDHs. (b) Polarization curves of FeNi-rGO LDH and other samples[84]. (c) SEM image of NiFe-LDH NP film. Inset: cross-view SEM image and typical TEM image. Scale bar: 100 nm. (d) Polarization curves of NiFe-LDH and other catalysts[118]

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) (a) Schematic illustration of the synthesis process of M@NCs from metal-containing precursors and SBA-15. (b), (c) HRTEM images of FeNi@NC. (d) OER polarization curves for M@NCs in comparison with other samples. (e) The calculated negative overpotential against the ΔG(O*)−ΔG(HO*) on different catalysts[87]

  • 在中性及碱性条件下, 由于溶液中氢离子浓度较低,

    HER过程通过一种不同的Volmer和Heyrovsky反应机理[91]进行:

  • Table 1   2D materials and their heterostructures for electrocatalytic water splitting

    二维材料

    催化剂组成

    电解质

    10 mA/cm2时的过

    电势(mV vs. RHE)

    Tafel斜率

    (mV/dec)

    应用

    文献

    石墨烯

    B掺杂石墨烯

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    130

    HER

    [49]

    N, S共掺杂三维(3D)纳米多孔

    石墨烯

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    280

    80.5

    HER

    [50]

    N, P共掺杂碳网络

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4/0.1 mol/L

    KOH

    91/145

    HER

    [51]

    Ni掺杂石墨烯

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    45

    HER

    [52]

    石墨烯封装过渡金属催化剂

    CoNi@N掺杂石墨烯

    0.1 mol/L H2SO4

    142

    104

    HER

    [53]

    FeCo@N掺杂石墨烯

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    262

    74

    HER

    [54]

    Mo2C@N掺杂碳

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4/0.1 mol/L

    磷酸缓冲液/1 mol/L KOH

    124/156/60

    60 (0.5 mol/L

    H2SO4)

    HER

    [55]

    MCNs@碳

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    78

    41

    HER

    [56]

    Mo2C@N, P共掺杂碳/N, P共

    掺杂还原氧化石墨烯

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    34

    33.6

    HER

    [57]

    g-C3N4

    C3N4@N掺杂石墨烯

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    240

    51.5

    HER

    [58]

    多孔氮化碳@N掺杂石墨烯

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    80

    49.1

    HER

    [59]

    g-C3N4纳米带-石墨烯

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    207

    54

    HER

    [60]

    Pd-CNx 复合物

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    55

    35

    HER

    [61]

    AuPd纳米簇/g-C3N4

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    47

    HER

    [62]

    Au-气凝胶-CNx

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    185

    53

    HER

    [63]

    S掺杂C3N4-多孔碳

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    145

    51

    HER

    [64]

    MoS2

    介孔MoS2

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    150

    50

    HER

    [65]

    富含缺陷MoS2

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    120

    50

    HER

    [66]

    O缺陷MoS2

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    120

    55

    HER

    [67]

    S缺陷MoS1.65

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    29

    HER

    [68]

    Pt掺杂MoS2

    0.1 mol/L H2SO4

    144

    96

    HER

    [69]

    MoS2/还原氧化石墨烯

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    41

    HER

    [70]

    MoS2/CoSe2

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    68

    36

    HER

    [71]

    WS2

    1T-WS2

    0.5 mol/L H2SO4

    142

    70

    HER

    [72]

    g-C3N4

    g-C3N4/石墨烯

    0.1 mol/L KOH

    539

    68.5

    OER

    [73]

    g-C3N4纳米片-CNT

    0.1 mol/L KOH

    370

    83

    OER

    [74]

    g-C3N4-Ti3C2叠层纳米片

    0.1 mol/L KOH

    420

    74.6

    OER

    [75]

    石墨烯

    Co/Co3O4-N掺杂石墨烯

    0.1 mol/L NaOH

    437

    99

    OER

    [76]

    N掺杂多孔碳@石墨烯

    0.1 mol/L KOH

    400

    78

    OER

    [77]

    Co3O4@三维多孔还原氧化

    石墨烯

    0.1 mol/L NaOH

    447

    71.4

    OER

    [78]

    Co@CoO

    1 mol/L KOH

    315

    68

    OER

    [79]

    LDHs

    Zn-Co-LDH

    0.1 mol/L KOH

    OER

    [80]

    CoMn LDH

    1 mol/L KOH

    324

    43

    OER

    [81]

    三维石墨烯网络/CoAl纳米片

    1 mol/L KOH

    252

    36

    OER

    [82]

    C量子点/NiFe-LDH

    1 mol/L KOH

    235

    30

    OER

    [83]

    FeNi-还原氧化石墨烯LDH

    1 mol/L KOH

    206

    39

    OER

    [84]

    石墨烯封装过渡金属催化剂

    Co3ZnC/Co@N掺杂碳

    1 mol/L KOH

    366

    81

    OER

    [85]

    NiP多孔纳米片

    1 mol/L KOH

    300

    64

    OER

    [86]

    FeNi@N掺杂石墨烯

    1 mol/L NaOH

    280

    70

    OER

    [87]