Chinese Science Bulletin, Volume 63 , Issue 26 : 2757-2771(2018) https://doi.org/10.1360/N972018-00462

Recent advances in driving mechanisms of the Arctic amplification: A review

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  • ReceivedMay 8, 2018
  • AcceptedJul 26, 2018
  • PublishedAug 21, 2018


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  • Figure 1

    Northern Hemisphere temperature trends from 1979 to 2016. Panel (a)–(d) are zonally averaged temperature trends at different geopotential levels for (a), spring (March–May), (b) summer (June–August), (c) autumn (September–November), (d) winter (December–February). Panel (e) and (f) are spatial patterns of annual and winter temperature trends at 1000 hPa. This figure is generated based on ERA-Interim reanalysis data from March 1979 to February 2016[5]

  • Figure 2

    Time series of the September sea ice extent (SIE) from 1979 to 2017 (a), and the September sea ice concentration (SIC) in 1980 and 2012 (b) over the Arctic. This figure is generated based on the Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid) 2.0 weekly snow cover and sea ice extent and the daily sea-ice concentration product from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC)[13,14]

  • Figure 3

    Schematic of the driving mechanisms of the Arctic amplification. This figure is generated based on an improvement of that from previous study[27]

  • Figure 4

    A conceptual model of the lapse rate feedback mechanism[63]

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Schematic of current inflow from the north Atlantic/ Pacific Ocean to the Arctic Ocean. BSO (Barents Sea opening) and FSE (eastern Fram strait) are the Barents Sea branch and the Eastern Fram branch of the Atlantic current. BS is the Bering strait[25]

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Schematic of the complementary mechanism of the northward heat transportation between the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the north hemisphere atmospheric general circulation[25]

  • Table 1   Several representative qualifications of the SIRF and SIAF over the Arctic


    IPCC (AR4/5)[49]




    SIRF (W m-2)






    SIAF (W m-2 K-1)

    ~0.1 (GL)

    ~0.10/0.11 (GL)




    a) GL, Global; NH, North Hemisphere