SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis, Volume 50 , Issue 4 : 496-510(2020) https://doi.org/10.1360/SSI-2019-0220

Data-driven fault diagnosis for dynamic traction systems in high-speed trains

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  • ReceivedOct 7, 2019
  • AcceptedDec 7, 2019
  • PublishedApr 3, 2020


Traction systems are an important aspect of high-speed trains, and their reliable operation is crucial. With data available from trains, this paper proposes an optimal fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) strategy for dynamic traction systems. Based on the established dynamic model, using sensor measurements, a correlation-aided subspace identification technique is proposed to formulate residual signals and corresponding test statistics for fault detection. Then, a modified support vector machine (SVM) is designed for optimally solving the diagnosis bias caused by the difference in the apparent probabilities of multiple fault scenarios. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optical FDD performance are illustrated in the CRRC experimental platforms.

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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Schematic diagram of traction systems in CRH2-type high-speed trains

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Platform of fault injection and diagnosis for traction systems of high-speed trains

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Detection results for 4 types of faults. (a) Fault $f_1$: fault detection ratio is $100%$, and false alarm ratio is $0.3%$; (b) fault $f_2$: fault detection ratio is $59.69%$, and false alarm ratio is $0.92%$; (c) fault $f_3$: fault detection ratio is $99.46%$, and false alarm ratio is $0.77%$; (d) fault $f_4$: fault detection ratio is $71.5%$, and false alarm ratio is $0.23%$

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Diagnosis results using (a) traditional SVM and (b) the proposed modified SVM


    Algorithm 1 离线辨识算法

    根据给定的 $N,s$, 得到输入矩阵 $U$ 与输出矩阵 $Y$;

    通过式 (14), 得到 $\mathcal{M}$ 矩阵;

    依据式 (15), 定义数据驱动的残差信号 $r(k)$;

    通过式 (17) 定义统计量, 并根据式 (18) 得到用于故障检测的阈值.


    Algorithm 2 离线故障特征提取算法

    对于 $\mathcal{T}$ 种故障数据, 通过式 (15) 得到所有类型故障的残差信号;

    采用一对多法, 定义故障诊断的目标函数 (20);

    根据诊断误差, 更新权重向量 $m$;

    通过式 (23) 得到新的惩罚因子;



    Algorithm 3 在线 FDD 算法

    读取在线数据 $u$ 和 $y$;

    根据式 (15) 得到当前时刻残差;

    依据式 (17) 中的统计量, 进行故障检测. 当系统无故障时, 返回第 1 步;否则继续执行算法;

    以报警的残差作为算法 2 得到分类器的输入, 输出故障类型, 并返回第 1 步.

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