SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis, Volume 50 , Issue 9 : 1377(2020) https://doi.org/10.1360/SSI-2020-0086

Shannon theory and future 6G's technique potentials

More info
  • ReceivedApr 9, 2020
  • AcceptedApr 21, 2020
  • PublishedSep 23, 2020


From the perspective of Shannon theory and its extensions, this paper is devoted to evaluate the technique potentials of the future 6G mobile communication system. First, the classic Shannon theory framework, including the performance tradeoff between block length, data rate, and reliability, is summarized, and the limitations of its application in the contemporary mobile communication system are addressed. Second, the multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) extension of classic Shannon theory is described, which plays fundamental roles in the development of contemporary mobile communication systems. Moreover, because Shannon theory and its MIMO extension are nonconstructive in nature, two kinds of constructive capacity-approaching mechanisms, namely, channel polarization and eigen-mode wireless transmission, are also introduced. Furthermore, aiming at higher spectrum efficiency and power efficiency, higher reliability and lower latency, and higher frequency band, which are essential indicators of future 6G, the technique potentials are theoretically discussed from the perspective of Shannon theory framework. It reveals that by introducing more antennas together with the innovation of cell-free network architecture and by making an effective balance between block length, error probability, data rate, and the minimum number of antennas, future 6G technology still has great potential to be improved. However, a compromise between system performance and deployment cost must be made, and the special features of MIMO channels in higher frequency bands must be carefully utilized. Finally, several fundamental issues related to future 6G development are summarized.

Funded by




[1] Shannon C E. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell Syst Technical J, 1948, 27: 379-423 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] Shannon C E. Communication in the Presence of Noise. Proc IRE, 1949, 37: 10-21 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Shannon C E. Probability of Error for Optimal Codes in a Gaussian Channel. Bell Syst Technical J, 1959, 38: 611-656 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Gallager R G. Information Theory and Reliable Communication. Hoboken: Wiley, 1968. Google Scholar

[5] Foschini G J, Gans M J. On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas. Wireless Personal Commun, 1998, 6: 311-335 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Da-Shan Shiu , Foschini G J, Gans M J. Fading correlation and its effect on the capacity of multielement antenna systems. IEEE Trans Commun, 2000, 48: 502-513 CrossRef Google Scholar

[7] Telatar E. Capacity of Multi-antenna Gaussian Channels. Eur Trans Telecomm, 1999, 10: 585-595 CrossRef Google Scholar

[8] TR 38.824. Study on Physical Layer Enhancements for NR Ultra-reliable and Low Latency Case. 3GPP 5G NR Release 16, 2019. Google Scholar

[9] Bi Q. Ten Trends in the Cellular Industry and an Outlook on 6G. IEEE Commun Mag, 2019, 57: 31-36 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Zhang L, Liang Y C, Niyato D. 6G visions: mobile ultra-broadband, super internet-of-things, and artificial intelligence. China Commun, 2019, 16: 1--14. Google Scholar

[11] 尤肖虎, 尹浩, 邬贺铨. 6G与广域物联网. 物联网学报, 2020, 4: 3--11. Google Scholar

[12] Pinsker M S. On the complexity of decoding. Problemy Peredachi Inform, 1965, 1: 84--86. Google Scholar

[13] Arikan E. Channel Polarization: A Method for Constructing Capacity-Achieving Codes for Symmetric Binary-Input Memoryless Channels. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 2009, 55: 3051-3073 CrossRef Google Scholar

[14] Arikan E. On the Origin of Polar Coding. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun, 2016, 34: 209-223 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] Zhou H Y, Zhang C, Song W Q, et al. Segmented CRC-aided SC list polar decoding. In: Proceedings of the 83rd Vehicular Technology Conference, 2016. Google Scholar

[16] 张川, 周华羿, 尤肖虎. 基于分段CRC校验的极化解码方法. 中国发明专利, 专利号 CN 105337696 A, 2016-02-17. Google Scholar

[17] Polyanskiy Y, Poor H V, Verdu S. Channel Coding Rate in the Finite Blocklength Regime. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 2010, 56: 2307-2359 CrossRef Google Scholar

[18] Potter C, Kosbar K, Panagos A. On Achievable Rates for MIMO Systems with Imperfect Channel State Information in the Finite Length Regime. IEEE Trans Commun, 2013, 61: 2772-2781 CrossRef Google Scholar

[19] 尤肖虎, 王东明, 王江舟. 分布式MIMO与无蜂窝移动通信. 北京: 科学出版社, 2019. Google Scholar

[20] Gao X Q, You X H, Jiang B. Unifying eigen-mode MIMO transmission. Sci China Ser F-Inf Sci, 2009, 52: 2269-2278 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] Xiao-Hu Yu , Guoan Chen , Ming Chen . The FuTURE Project in China. IEEE Commun Mag, 2005, 43: 70-75 CrossRef Google Scholar

[22] Gao X, Jiang B, Li X. Statistical Eigenmode Transmission Over Jointly Correlated MIMO Channels. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 2009, 55: 3735-3750 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Dongming Wang , Xiqi Gao , Xiaohu You . Low complexity turbo receiver for multi-user STBC block transmission systems. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun, 2006, 5: 2625-2632 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Hyundong Shin , Win M Z. Gallager's exponent for MIMO channels: a reliability-rate tradeoff. IEEE Trans Commun, 2009, 57: 972-985 CrossRef Google Scholar

[25] Ho P K M, Kar-Peo Yar P K M, Pooi Yuen Kam P K M. Cutoff Rate of MIMO Systems in Rayleigh Fading Channels With Imperfect CSIR and Finite Frame Error Probability. IEEE Trans Veh Technol, 2009, 58: 3292-3300 CrossRef Google Scholar

[26] Proakis J. Digital Communications. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. Google Scholar

[27] Lizhong Zheng , Tse D N C. Diversity and multiplexing: a fundamental tradeoff in multiple-antenna channels. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 2003, 49: 1073-1096 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Wallace J W, Jensen M A. Mutual Coupling in MIMO Wireless Systems: A Rigorous Network Theory Analysis. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun, 2004, 3: 1317-1325 CrossRef Google Scholar

[29] Murata K, Honma N. On potential channel capacity of massive MIMO array within small finite space. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Antennas & Propagation, Florida, 2013. 868--869. Google Scholar

[30] Sayeed A M, Behdad N. Continuous aperture phased MIMO: a new architecture for optimum line-of-sight links. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Antennas & Propagation, Monterey, 2011. 293--296. Google Scholar

[31] Pizzo A, Marzetta T L, Sanguinetti L. Spatial characterization of holographic MIMO channels. 2020,. arXiv Google Scholar

[32] Ngo H Q, Ashikhmin A, Yang H. Cell-Free Massive MIMO Versus Small Cells. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun, 2017, 16: 1834-1850 CrossRef Google Scholar

[33] Buzzi S, D'Andrea C. Cell-Free Massive MIMO: User-Centric Approach. IEEE Wireless Commun Lett, 2017, 6: 706-709 CrossRef Google Scholar

[34] Rusek F, Persson D, Buon Kiong Lau D. Scaling Up MIMO: Opportunities and Challenges with Very Large Arrays. IEEE Signal Process Mag, 2013, 30: 40-60 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[35] Wolf A, Schulz P, Dorpinghaus M. How Reliable and Capable is Multi-Connectivity?. IEEE Trans Commun, 2019, 67: 1506-1520 CrossRef Google Scholar

[36] Xue J, Ratnarajah T, Zhong C. Reliability Analysis for Large MIMO Systems. IEEE Wireless Commun Lett, 2014, 3: 553-556 CrossRef Google Scholar

[37] Makki B, Svensson T, Coldrey M. Finite Block-Length Analysis of Large-But-Finite MIMO Systems. IEEE Wireless Commun Lett, 2019, 8: 113-116 CrossRef Google Scholar

[38] Brady J, Behdad N, Sayeed A M. Beamspace MIMO for Millimeter-Wave Communications: System Architecture, Modeling, Analysis, and Measurements. IEEE Trans Antennas Propagat, 2013, 61: 3814-3827 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[39] Yang X, Li X, Zhang S. On the Ergodic Capacity of mmWave Systems Under Finite-Dimensional Channels. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun, 2019, 18: 5440-5453 CrossRef Google Scholar

Copyright 2020  CHINA SCIENCE PUBLISHING & MEDIA LTD.  中国科技出版传媒股份有限公司  版权所有

京ICP备14028887号-23       京公网安备11010102003388号