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SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis, Volume 50 , Issue 7 : 1069-1090(2020) https://doi.org/10.1360/SSI-2020-0107

Research on intelligent robot systems for emergency prevention and control of major pandemics

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  • ReceivedApr 24, 2020
  • AcceptedApr 30, 2020
  • PublishedJul 15, 2020

Abstract

In recent years, SARS virus, MERS coronavirus, and other global pandemics have occurred frequently. The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused more than 3.7 million infected people and 260000 deaths over 210 countries around the world from December 2019 to May 7, 2020, which has seriously affected the safety of people, the stability of social order, and the development of the economy. Therefore, it is urgent to explore and implement new prevention and control programs for such major pandemics. With the development of robots and artificial intelligence technologies, various intelligent robots for emergency prevention and control in complex conditions have emerged, and they have played paramount roles in disease prevention and control, diagnosis, treatment, and nursing. Based on the problems of insufficient supply of materials and heavy disinfection tasks during the prevention and control of major outbreaks, we study the systematic procedures and applications of medical material handling robots, multi-scene disinfection robots, medical assistant robots, prevention and control robots, and production resumption robots. Moreover, we comparatively analyze the current situation of key technologies of pandemic emergency prevention and control robots, such as environmental perception, autonomous navigation, motion planning, and 5G communication technology. In conclusion, we put forward a technical prospect of intelligent robot systems for emergency prevention and control of major pandemics.


Funded by

国家自然科学基金(61971071)

国家重点研发计划(2018YFB1308200)

湖南省自然科学基金(2018JJ3079)

湖南省重点研发计划(2018GK2022)

长沙市科技计划项目(kq1907087)

湖南省创新型省份建设专项经费(2020SK3007)


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Multi-scene robots and their application for emergency prevention and control of pandemics

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Application of multi-scene material handling robots in anti-pandemics

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Multi-scenario application of multi-type disinfection robots

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Advanced robot pharmaceutical flexible production line system

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Key technology of the intelligent robot system for emergency prevention and control

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Prospects of intelligent robot systems for emergency prevention and control

  • Table 1   Research progress of environmental perception technology
    Reference Sensor type Research Method Summary
    [55] Depth camera, lidar Indoor service robot environment perception and 3D target detection Multi-channel convolutional neural network combining RGB, depth image and BEV image Improve the perception ability of the neural network and the environment perception ability of the robot
    [56] CCD Cooperative autonomous positioning of air-ground robots in outdoor environments Cooperative positioning algorithm of aerial robot and ground robot The accuracy is better than most sensors, and has a good running time
    [57] CCD, infrared sensor Decision strategy for multi-robot environment perception Propose a novel collective perception strategy While ensuring speed and accuracy, it is more robust
    [58] CCD Humanoid robots' perception of the surrounding environment Develop an omnidirectional robot vision system with 5 degrees of freedom It can provide detailed surrounding environment information of the robot to realize full-range real-time perception
    [59] Microwave radar Perception of mobile robots in outdoor and open environments Use PELICAN radar to sense the surrounding environment information Obstacle detection, mapping and general situational awareness can be achieved
    [60] CCD Mobile robot's environment perception in the process of semantic navigation A position recognition model, a rotation region recognition model and an edge recognition model based on transfer learning It has good applicability and robustness, and it can be considered to expand the adaptability of the dynamic pedestrian environment
    [61] Structured light RGB-D sensor, stereo camera Unstructured terrain modeling problem of leg robot navigation Propose an improved elevation grid concept It can improve the perception ability of small-legged robots
  • Table 2   Research progress of autonomous positioning technology
    Reference Sensor type Research Method Summary
    [65] Ultrasonic sensor Mobile robot positioning method The generalized measurement model of the general sensor structure and the simplified measurement model of the sensor structure are established. High-precision ultrasonic positioning without increasing temperature information
    [66] UWB, INS In a closed environment, real-time navigation and tracking of mobile robots An autonomous navigation system for mobile robots based on tightly coupled INS/UWB is proposed and an improved adaptive Kalman filter (IAKF) algorithm is proposed It can track the position and posture of mobile robots in real time, and the proposed IAKF algorithm has high positioning accuracy
    [67] Multi-sensor fusion Mobile robot positioning method when there is noise interference An HCKF algorithm based on multi-sensor information fusion under wireless sensor networks (WSNs) During noise interference, the positioning accuracy is still high
    [68] Lidar, stereo camera Initial positioning of mobile robots Combine the 3D feature map and the information obtained by light detection and ranging (LiDAR) to construct a 3D map of the robot's surrounding environment It can realize accurate estimation of the position of the robot
    [69] GPS, INS Mobile robot positioning and navigation in urban environment Develop an enhanced fault detection and isolation (FDI) algorithm with short-term memory It can locate mobile robots in harsh environments
    [70] Vision sensor, inertial sensor Indoor mobile robot positioning Improve SIFT algorithm and AFEKF algorithm, and use adaptive and fading extended Kalman filter to process visual and IMU data The positioning accuracy is higher, but the number of experiments is relatively small, and the trajectory is relatively short
    [71] Depth camera Fast real-time positioning after the mobile robot starts An improved ORB-SLAM2 algorithm It can build and load off-line maps, and perform fast relocation and tracking
    [72] Depth camera Restaurant mobile service robot positioning accuracy A positioning method and landmark recognition method based on RGB and depth (RGB-D) visual sensors It verifies the feasibility of the proposed method
  • Table 3   Research progress of motion planning technology
    Reference Year Research Method Summary
    [74] 2019 Global motion planning of mobile robot with motion constraints A new method based on improved particle swarm optimization (MPSO) combined with $\eta$ 3-splines Storage requirements are reduced and have been successfully applied to two-layer global smooth motion planning with motion constraints
    [75] 2019 Optimal motion planning for finding hidden targets in an unknown environment A hybrid algorithm based on reinforcement learning divided into two stages It has higher efficiency in finding optimal motion planning for hidden targets and can adapt to random and dynamic environments
    [76] 2019 The collision rate of robots in free space An improved Q-learning algorithm It can quickly realize the motion planning of mobile robots and reduce the probability of robots colliding with obstacles
    [77] 2019 Path calculation in an unknown environment or moving obstacles An A* search algorithm based on dynamic simplification and an optimized path calculation method with real-time constraints The search and calculation time for the optimized A* algorithm can be decreased to 91% of the original calculation time
    [78] 2019 Convergence speed in optimal path planning Put forward the concept of partially guiding Q-learning, and use the flower pollination algorithm (FPA) to improve the Q-learning algorithm Under the challenge environment with different obstacle layouts, the improved Q-learning algorithm convergence speed is accelerated
    [79] 2019 System processing time in motion planning A method combining membrane calculation with genetic algorithm and artificial potential field method A multi-processor system can be used to obtain a solution in a short time, with better security and smoothness
    [80] 2020 Optimal collision-free path in static environment An off-line path planning method-boundary node method It can effectively generate the optimal collision-free path
    [81] 2020 Solve collision-free motion planning in a short time A retreat beetle antenna search algorithm A collision-free path can be effectively planned in a short time

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