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  • ReceivedMay 29, 2020
  • AcceptedJun 15, 2020
  • PublishedOct 15, 2020

Abstract

Imaging spectrometry can obtain both geometric image and spectral radiation of targets. Prisms, gratings, and interferometers are often used for light decomposition. Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy (FTIS) is based on light interference to obtain interferograms of the target and reconstruct the spectra using the Fourier transform method. FTIS has numerous advantages, including high throughput and spectral resolution and multiplex. It is a hotspot in the field of imaging spectroscopy and has been established in three types, namely, temporally modulated, spatially modulated, and temporally-spatially modulated. FTIS has been widely used in various fields, including industry, agriculture, scientific research, biomedicine, atmospheric detection, environmental monitoring, and resource investigation. In this paper, the basic principle of FTIS based on the Michelson interferometer is briefly introduced. Typical techniques for different modulation types and remote sensing applications are also presented.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Schematic diagram of imaging spectroscopy

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Principle of FTS with Michelson interferometer

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Moving mirror tilted in Michelson interferometer

  • Figure 4

    Three TMFTIS types of high stability. (a) TMFTIS based on double pendulum interferometer; (b) TMFTIS based on ultra-rapid-scanning interferometer; (c) TMFTIS based on Perkin-Elmer Dynascan interferometer

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Principle of SMFTIS and the interference pattern

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Optical equivalent model of SMFTIS

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Principle of TSMFTIS and the interference image

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) Interferogram extraction procedure of TSMFTIS

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) Schematic diagram of parallel sampling method

  • Table 1   Interference modulation depth of different lateral shearing interferometers
    Lateral shearing interferometer Modulation depth
    Sagnac $M_{\rm~I}(\nu)=1$
    Mach-Zehnder $M_{\rm~I}(\nu)=1$
    Lloyd $M_{\rm~I}(\nu)={\rm~sinc}(2\nu~w\sin\theta)$
    Fresnel $M_{\rm~I}(\nu)={\rm~sinc}(2\nu~w\sin\alpha\cos\theta)$
  • Table 2   Design characteristics of the high spatial resolution hyper-spectral imager
    Instrument parameter Instrument characteristic
    Orbit altitude 500 km
    Imaging mode Continuous pushbroom
    Ground sampling distance 2.5 m
    Spectral coverage 400–1000 nm
    Number of bands 64
    Parallel sampling times 4
    Maximum frame rate of detector 700 fps
    Pixel size 16 $\mu$m
    Quantum efficiency 0.81@645 nm
    Full well capacity 200000${\rm~e}^-$
    $F$# 5
    Integration time 0.179 ms
    Solar elevation angle $70^\circ$
    Albedo 0.3
    Output electrons of zero OPD 150156${\rm~e}^-$
    SNR of the interferogram at the center burst 500