SCIENTIA SINICA Vitae, Volume 49 , Issue 9 : 1155-1164(2019) https://doi.org/10.1360/SSV-2019-0163

Phylogeography of widespread species in Eurasia: Current progress and future prospects

More info
  • ReceivedJul 28, 2019
  • AcceptedAug 7, 2019
  • PublishedSep 4, 2019


The geographical distribution patterns of the widespread species in Eurasia are classified into four major categories: global distribution, holarctic distribution, mid-high latitude Eurasian distribution, and mid-low latitude Eurasian distribution patterns. By comparing the results of recent phylogeographic studies on the widespread species in Eurasia, we have outlined three phylogeographic patterns: (i) “single-component,” (ii) “east-west component,” and (iii) “peripatric component” patterns. The present study summarizes the factors that potentially influence the phylogeographic patterns of the widespread species in Eurasia. These factors include the following: (i) the relatively high environmental tolerance and dispersal ability of the species as well as the influence of human trade, transportation, and domestication activities; (ii) the east-west diverging Pleistocene glacial climate and the inland arid belt: during glaciation, most regions of Europe were covered with ice sheets; therefore, the species retreated to refuge areas and during the interglacial periods, they recolonized to suitable areas, which facilitated survival after the Last Glacial Maximum. The glacial climates in most parts of Asia were relatively mild, particularly in east Asia, which was less extensively glaciated, as a result of which the glacial period had a relatively low impact on the distribution patterns of species in such areas. In addition, the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau during the Pleistocene and the intensification of the Asian summer monsoon have promoted the formation of the inland arid belt of Eurasia, resulting in long-term ecological isolation. Lastly, (iii) the influence of peripatric speciation: populations disperse to the new marginal environment. Due to geographic or environmental isolation, genetic drift is fixed in small isolated populations, resulting in genetic differentiation among populations. Analyzing the unique and consistent response mechanisms of the widespread species in Eurasia under similar geographical and geological histories would facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the establishment of geographical populations of the widely distributed species in Eurasia. In addition, this will summarize and identify appropriate diversities and universal principles influencing the phylogeographical patterns of the Eurasian species. Finally, the present study reveals prospective research directions in phylogeography on the widespread species in Eurasia based on large-scale nuclear genome markers and the integration of life history traits into predictive phylogeography.

Funded by





[1] Li X J. Systematic Study on the Insects of Conophyminae from Eurasia (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) (in Chinese). Dissertation for Doctoral Degree. Baoding: Hebei University, 2008 [李新江. 欧亚大陆裸蝗亚科昆虫系统学研究(直翅目: 蝗总科). 博士学位论文. 保定: 河北大学, 2008]. Google Scholar

[2] Favre A, Päckert M, Pauls S U, et al. The role of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau for the evolution of Tibetan biotas. Biol Rev, 2015, 90: 236-253 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[3] Lu H, Wang X, Wang X, et al. Formation and evolution of Gobi Desert in central and eastern Asia. Earth-Sci Rev, 2019, 194: 251-263 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Chen M, Wang R, Yang L, et al. Development of East Asian summer monsoon environments in the late Miocene: Radiolarian evidence from Site 1143 of ODP Leg 184. Mar Geol, 2003, 201: 169-177 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[5] Wan S, Li A, Clift P D, et al. Development of the East Asian summer monsoon: Evidence from the sediment record in the South China Sea since 8.5 Ma. Paleogeogr Paleoclimatol Paleoecol, 2006, 241: 139-159 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[6] Miao Y, Herrmann M, Wu F, et al. What controlled Mid-Late Miocene long-term aridification in Central Asia? — Global cooling or Tibetan Plateau uplift: A review. Earth-Sci Rev, 2012, 112: 155-172 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[7] Fortelius M, Eronen J, Jernvall J et al. Fossil mammals resolve regional patterns of Eurasian climate change over 20 million years. Evol Ecol Res, 2002, 4: 1005–1016. Google Scholar

[8] Fortelius M, Eronen J, Liu L, et al. Late Miocene and Pliocene large land mammals and climatic changes in Eurasia. Paleogeogr Paleoclimatol Paleoecol, 2006, 238: 219-227 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[9] Flower B P, Kennett J P. The middle Miocene climatic transition: East Antarctic ice sheet development, deep ocean circulation and global carbon cycling. Paleogeogr Paleoclimatol Paleoecol, 1994, 108: 537-555 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[10] Zachos J, Pagani M, Sloan L, et al. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science, 2001, 292: 686-693 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[11] Yin A. Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Asia: A preliminary synthesis. Tectonophysics, 2010, 488: 293-325 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[12] Melville J, Hale J, Mantziou G, et al. Historical biogeography, phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific diversity of agamid lizards in the Central Asian deserts of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Mol Phylogenets Evol, 2009, 53: 99-112 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[13] Shi C M, Ji Y J, Liu L, et al. Impact of climate changes from Middle Miocene onwards on evolutionary diversification in Eurasia: Insights from the mesobuthid scorpions. Mol Ecol, 2013, 22: 1700-1716 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[14] Raymo M E. The initiation of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci, 1994, 22: 353-383 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[15] Bennett K D, Provan J. What do we mean by “refugia”?. Quat Sci Rev, 2008, 27: 2449-2455 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[16] Birks H J B, Willis K J. Alpines, trees, and refugia in Europe. Plant Ecol Divers, 2008, 1: 147-160 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Taberlet P, Fumagalli L, Wust‐saucy A, et al. Comparative phylogeography and postglacial colonization routes in Europe. Mol Ecol, 1998, 7: 453-464 CrossRef Google Scholar

[18] Hewitt G. Post-glacial re-colonization of European Biota. Biol J Linnean Soc, 1999, 68: 87-112 CrossRef Google Scholar

[19] Hewitt G. The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Nature, 2000, 405: 907-913 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[20] Schmitt T. Molecular biogeography of Europe: Pleistocene cycles and postglacial trends. Front Zool, 2007, 4: 11 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[21] Schmitt T, Varga Z. Extra-Mediterranean refugia: The rule and not the exception?. Front Zool, 2012, 9: 22 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[22] Milne R I, Abbott R J. The origin and evolution of tertiary relict floras. Adv Bot Res, 2002, 38: 281–314. Google Scholar

[23] Ian Milne R. Northern hemisphere plant disjunctions: A window on tertiary land bridges and climate change?. Ann Bot, 2006, 98: 465-472 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[24] Tao X Y. Genetic Diversity and Phylogeographic Study of the Endangered Species Platycrater argute (Hydrangeaceae) Endemic to the Sino-Japanese Region (in Chinese). Dissertation for Master’s Degree. Hangzhou: Zhejiang University, 2008 [陶晓瑜. 东亚特有濒危植物蛛网萼的遗传多样性与亲缘地理学研究. 硕士学位论文. 杭州: 浙江大学, 2008]. Google Scholar

[25] Clark P U, Mix A C. Ice sheets and sea level of the Last Glacial Maximum. Quat Sci Rev, 2002, 21: 1-7 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[26] Dyke A S, Andrews J T, Clark P U, et al. The laurentide and innuitian ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum. Quat Sci Rev, 2002, 21: 9-31 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[27] Svendsen J I, Alexanderson H, Astakhov V I, et al. Late Quaternary ice sheet history of northern Eurasia. Quat Sci Rev, 2004, 23: 1229-1271 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[28] Allen J R M, Hickler T, Singarayer J S, et al. Last glacial vegetation of northern Eurasia. Quat Sci Rev, 2010, 29: 2604-2618 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[29] Hu Z J, Zhang Y L, Liu L S, et al. Review on refugia and and their identification methods (in Chinese). Chin J Ecol, 2013, 32: 3397–3406 [胡忠俊, 张镱锂, 刘林山, 等. 生物避难所及其识别方法综述. 生态学杂志, 2013, 32: 3397–3406]. Google Scholar

[30] Qiu Y X, Lu Q X, Zhang Y H, et al. Phylogeography of East Asia’s Tertiary relict plants: Current progress and future prospects (in Chinese). Bio Sci, 2017, 25: 136–146 [邱英雄, 鹿启祥, 张永华, 等. 东亚第三纪孑遗植物的亲缘地理学: 现状与趋势. 生物多样性, 2017, 25: 136–146]. Google Scholar

[31] López-Pujol J, Zhang F M, Sun H Q, et al. Centres of plant endemism in China: Places for survival or for speciation?. J Biogeogr, 2011, 38: 1267-1280 CrossRef Google Scholar

[32] Avise J C. Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000. Google Scholar

[33] Avise J C. Phylogeography: Retrospect and prospect. J Biogeogr, 2009, 36: 3-15 CrossRef Google Scholar

[34] Avise J C, Bowen B W, Ayala F J. In the light of evolution X: Comparative phylogeography. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2016, 113: 7957-7961 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[35] Larson G, Dobney K, Albarella U, et al. Worldwide phylogeography of wild boar reveals multiple centers of pig domestication. Science, 2005, 307: 1618-1621 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[36] Zhang R, Song G, Qu Y, et al. Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies: Importance of habitat preference and breeding behavior on genetic structure in China. Mol Phylogenets Evol, 2012, 65: 562-572 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[37] Wang W, McKay B D, Dai C, et al. Glacial expansion and diversification of an East Asian montane bird, the green-backed tit (Parus monticolus). J Biogeogr, 2012, 40: 1156-1169 CrossRef Google Scholar

[38] Lei F M. Global endemism needs spatial integration. Science, 2012, 335: 284-285 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[39] Hou Z, Li S. Tethyan changes shaped aquatic diversification. Biol Rev, 2018, 93: 874-896 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[40] Qi X S, Chen C, Comes H P, et al. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal a highly dynamic evolutionary history of the East Asian Tertiary relict Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae). New Phytol, 2012, 196: 617-630 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[41] Cao Y N, Comes H P, Sakaguchi S, et al. Evolution of East Asia’s Arcto-tertiary relict Euptelea (Eupteleaceae) shaped by late Neogene vicariance and Quaternary climate change. BMC Evol Biol, 2016, 16: 66 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[42] Hewitt G. Some genetic consequences of ice ages, and their role in divergence and speciation. Biol J Linnean Soc, 1996, 58: 247-276 CrossRef Google Scholar

[43] Habel J C, Schmitt T, Müller P. The fourth paradigm pattern of post-glacial range expansion of European terrestrial species: The phylogeography of the Marbled White butterfly (Satyrinae, Lepidoptera). J Biogeogr, 2005, 32: 1489-1497 CrossRef Google Scholar

[44] Provan J, Bennett K D. Phylogeographic insights into cryptic glacial refugia. Trends Ecol Evol, 2008, 23: 564-571 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[45] Porretta D, Mastrantonio V, Bellini R, et al. Glacial history of a modern invader: Phylogeography and species distribution modelling of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. PLoS ONE, 2012, 7: e44515 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[46] Shi M M, Michalski S G, Welk E, et al. Phylogeography of a widespread Asian subtropical tree: Genetic east-west differentiation and climate envelope modelling suggest multiple glacial refugia. J Biogeogr, 2014, 41: 1710-1720 CrossRef Google Scholar

[47] Zhu G P, Ye Z, Du J, et al. Range wide molecular data and niche modeling revealed the Pleistocene history of a global invader (Halyomorpha halys). Sci Rep, 2016, 6: 23192 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[48] Dai C, Zhao N, Wang W, et al. Profound climatic effects on two East Asian black-throated tits (Ave: Aegithalidae), revealed by ecological niche models and phylogeographic analysis. PLoS ONE, 2011, 6: e29329 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[49] Ye Z, Zhu G, Chen P, et al. Molecular data and ecological niche modelling reveal the Pleistocene history of a semi-aquatic bug (Microvelia douglasi douglasi) in East Asia. Mol Ecol, 2014, 23: 3080-3096 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[50] Zhang R Y. Comparative Phylogeography of Six Widespread Passerine Birds Across Eurasia (in Chinese). Dissertation for Doctoral Degree. Beijing: Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2013 [张瑞莹. 欧亚大陆六种广布鸟类比较谱系生物地理学研究. 博士学位论文. 北京: 中国科学院动物所, 2013]. Google Scholar

[51] Carstens B C, Knowles L L. Estimating species phylogeny from gene-tree probabilities despite incomplete lineage sorting: An example from Melanoplus grasshoppers. Systatic Biol, 2007, 56: 400-411 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[52] Tabata R, Kawaguchi F, Sasazaki S, et al. The Eurasian Steppe is an important goat propagation route: A phylogeographic analysis using mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome sequences of Kazakhstani goats. Anim Sci J, 2018, 90: 317-322 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[53] Hardouin E A, Orth A, Teschke M, et al. Eurasian house mouse (Mus musculus L.) differentiation at microsatellite loci identifies the iranian plateau as a phylogeographic hotspot. BMC Evol Biol, 2015, 15: 26 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[54] Cornille A, Salcedo A, Kryvokhyzha D, et al. Genomic signature of successful colonization of Eurasia by the allopolyploid shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Mol Ecol, 2016, 25: 616-629 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[55] Rodrigues A S B, Silva S E, Marabuto E, et al. New mitochondrial and nuclear evidences support recent demographic expansion and an atypical phylogeographic pattern in the spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae). PLoS ONE, 2014, 9: e98375 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[56] Kohli B A, Fedorov V B, Waltari E, et al. Phylogeography of a Holarctic rodent (Myodes rutilus): Testing high-latitude biogeographical hypotheses and the dynamics of range shifts. J Biogeogr, 2015, 42: 377-389 CrossRef Google Scholar

[57] Wu Y, Molongoski J J, Winograd D F, et al. Genetic structure, admixture and invasion success in a Holarctic defoliator, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Erebidae). Mol Ecol, 2015, 24: 1275-1291 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[58] Hantemirova E V, Heinze B, Knyazeva S G, et al. A new Eurasian phylogeographical paradigm? Limited contribution of southern populations to the recolonization of high latitude populations in Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae). J Biogeogr, 2017, 44: 271-282 CrossRef Google Scholar

[59] Zink R M, Drovetski S V, Rohwer S. Phylogeographic patterns in the great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major across Eurasia. J Avian Biol, 2002, 33: 175-178 CrossRef Google Scholar

[60] Perktas U, Barrowclough G F, Groth J G. Phylogeography and species limits in the green woodpecker complex (Aves: Picidae): Multiple Pleistocene refugia and range expansion across Europe and the Near East. Biol J Linnean Soc, 2011, 104: 710-723 CrossRef Google Scholar

[61] Perdices A, Vasil’eva E, Vasil’ev V. From Asia to Europe across Siberia: Phylogeography of the Siberian spined loach (Teleostei, Cobitidae). Zool Scr, 2015, 44: 29-40 CrossRef Google Scholar

[62] Durka W, Babik W, Ducroz J F, et al. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber L.. Mol Ecol, 2005, 14: 3843-3856 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[63] Hung C M, Drovetski S V, Zink R M. Recent allopatric divergence and niche evolution in a widespread Palearctic bird, the common rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus). Mol Phylogenets Evol, 2013, 66: 103-111 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[64] Duriez O, Sachet J M, Ménoni E, et al. Phylogeography of the capercaillie in Eurasia: What is the conservation status in the Pyrenees and Cantabrian mounts?. Conserv Genet, 2007, 8: 513-526 CrossRef Google Scholar

[65] Krehenwinkel H, Graze M, Rödder D, et al. A phylogeographical survey of a highly dispersive spider reveals eastern Asia as a major glacial refugium for Palaearctic fauna. J Biogeogr, 2016, 43: 1583-1594 CrossRef Google Scholar

[66] Song G, Zhang R, Alström P, et al. Complete taxon sampling of the avian genus Pica (magpies) reveals ancient relictual populations and synchronous Late-Pleistocene demographic expansion across the Northern Hemisphere. J Avian Biol, 2018, 49: jav-01612 CrossRef Google Scholar

[67] Fields P D, Reisser C, Dukić M, et al. Genes mirror geography in Daphnia magna. Mol Ecol, 2015, 24: 4521-4536 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[68] Fields P D, Obbard D J, McTaggart S J, et al. Mitogenome phylogeographic analysis of a planktonic crustacean. Mol Phylogenets Evol, 2018, 129: 138-148 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[69] Salzburger W, Martens J, Nazarenko A A, et al. Phylogeography of the Eurasian Willow Tit (Parus montanus) based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Mol Phylogenets Evol, 2002, 24: 26-34 CrossRef Google Scholar

[70] Marmi J, López-Giráldez F, Macdonald D W, et al. Mitochondrial DNA reveals a strong phylogeographic structure in the badger across Eurasia. Mol Ecol, 2006, 15: 1007-1020 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[71] Hewitt G M. Genetic consequences of climatic oscillations in the Quaternary. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B, 2004, 359: 183-195 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[72] Qian H. Spatial pattern of vascular plant diversity in North America north of Mexico and its floristic relationship with Eurasia. Ann Bot, 1999, 83: 271-283 CrossRef Google Scholar

[73] Zink R M, Klicka J, Barber B R. The tempo of avian diversification during the Quaternary. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B, 2004, 359: 215-220 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[74] Coyne J A, Orr H A. Speciation. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, 2004. Google Scholar

[75] Turelli M, Barton N H, Coyne J A. Theory and speciation. Trends Ecol Evol, 2001, 16: 330-343 CrossRef Google Scholar

[76] Edwards S V, Beerli P. Perspective: Gene divergence, population divergence, and the variance in coalescence time in phylogeographic studies. Evolution, 2000, 54: 1839-1854 CrossRef Google Scholar

[77] Garrick R C, Bonatelli I A S, Hyseni C, et al. The evolution of phylogeographic data sets. Mol Ecol, 2015, 24: 1164-1171 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[78] Zhai X Z. SNP Mapping and Population Genetic Analyses for 13 Chinese Indigenous Chicken Breeds Using RAD Sequencing (in Chinese). Dissertation for Master’s Degree. Shanghai: Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2014 [翟正晓. 基于RAD简化基因组测序技术的13种中国地方优良鸡品种SNPs多态性图谱构建及群体遗传学分析. 硕士学位论文. 上海: 上海交通大学, 2014]. Google Scholar

[79] Arnold B, Corbett-Detig R B, Hartl D, et al. RAD seq underestimates diversity and introduces genealogical biases due to nonrandom haplotype sampling. Mol Ecol, 2013, 22: 3179-3190 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[80] Carstens B C, Brennan R S, Chua V, et al. Model selection as a tool for phylogeographic inference: An example from the willow Salix melanopsis. Mol Ecol, 2013, 22: 4014-4028 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[81] Sun H, Deng T, Chen Y S, et al. Current research and development trends in floristic geography (in Chinese). Bio Sci, 2017, 25: 111–122 [孙航, 邓涛, 陈永生. 植物区系地理研究现状及发展趋势. 生物多样性, 2017, 25: 111–122]. Google Scholar

[82] Espíndola A, Ruffley M, Smith M L, et al. Identifying cryptic diversity with predictive phylogeography. Proc R Soc B, 2016, 283: 20161529 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[83] López-Uribe M M, Jha S, Soro A. A trait‐based approach to predict population genetic structure in bees. Mol Ecol, 2019, 28: 1919-1929 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[84] Sullivan J, Smith M L, Espíndola A, et al. Integrating life history traits into predictive phylogeography. Mol Ecol, 2019, 28: 2062-2073 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

Copyright 2020  CHINA SCIENCE PUBLISHING & MEDIA LTD.  中国科技出版传媒股份有限公司  版权所有

京ICP备14028887号-23       京公网安备11010102003388号